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Rector of St. Andrew's Church, Philadelphia, 



Let me now go to the field and glean ears of corn. 
RUTH, ii.2. 

W. .1. & J. K. SIMON 



Entered according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1842, by 
JOHN A. CLARK, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court in the 
Eastern District of Pennsylvania. 



WHEN it was not so common, as now, to issue pub 
lications from the press, a book of any kind seldom made 
its appearance, without a PREFACE, to give the reader 
some idea of its contents, and the history of its elaboration 
from the author's mind. But at the present day, when 
authorship is no longer the prerogative of the few, and the 
press teems with every species of literature, preface 
writing has quite fallen into desuetude ; not improbably 
for the very solid and satisfactory reason that it would be 
a most difficult, perplexing, and onerous business, to their 
several authors, to assign any plausible grounds for the 
publication of one half of the volumes that come forth in 
such immense shoals from the press. 

We are certainly attached to the good old custom of 
having a preface, although we are aware that many authors 
who omit this appendage, assign as a reason, that the pre 
face is the only part of a book that is never read. This 
we think, in many instances, is not exactly true. There 
are those in the present day, who like to know why a 
book was written, and what it contains, before they begin 


to read it. By such knowledge and this is precisely 
the information a preface ought to convey they avoid the 
trouble of reading many a volume, which had the author 
been of the same mind, he might have escaped the trouble 
of writing. To this class of readers the preface is an im 
portant part of the book: while to those who eschew 
every thing of this sort, it will give but little trouble, to 
turn over a leaf or two to the commencement of the first 

We did not mean, when we began, to write a defence 
of prefaces but to write a preface to our own work. 

The name of this volume, GLEANINGS BIT THE WAY, 
indicates the character of the work. It consists principally 
of thoughts gathered up and sketches of scenery, and 
incidents, that came before the author during excursions 
made into the country at different periods, within the last 
four years. For several years the author has been labour 
ing under infirm health, and has found it necessary after 
encountering the heavy pastoral duties and labours con 
nected with a large city congregation for nine or ten 
months in succession, to retire from the scene of his min 
isterial duties, and seek to recruit his wasted strength and 
enfeebled health amid the retirement of rural life, or the 
diversified scenes of travel and journeying. During these 
seasons of relaxation, the author desired still to be en 
gaged in something that might at least indirectly promote 
the interests of religion. This volume contains some of 
the things of which he at such seasons made a record. 


In the tour to the FAR WEST, made during the summer 
of 1837 and the sketch that depicts the outline of the 
Mormon Delusion, the author cherishes the hope that facts 
are brought to light that will interest a large class of readers. 
And he also cherishes the hope that while these pages may 
interest the general reader, may beguile a lonely hour 
and attract the attention of some who would not be likely 
to take up a more serious book the tendency of the 
whole volume will be to advance, at least indirectly, that 
cause which lies so near to his heart. With this hope 
and not with any expectation of earning increased literary 
reputation, he sends forth these GLEANINGS BY THE 

: - f. 



The Three Gleaners . 


Views of Pennsylvania .Tour to Htirrisburgh Aspect of the country 
The Valley of the Susquehanna The passage of the River The 
Valley of the Juniata Huntingdon The Rev. John W. James His 
sudden exit. 


Glimpses of Western Pennsylvania : Source of the Juniata Ascent of 
the Alleghanies The summit The Great Mississippi Valley Skepti 
cism Rank growth of religious error Dunkards Valley of the Cone- 
maugh Moonlight Singular conversation Infidel sneers. 


Pittsburg and its environs : First view of Pittsburg Its general aspect 
Sabbath and its employments An affecting incident Orphan children 
A Christian father in the midst of his children on the Sabbath. 


Voyage on the Ohio : Travelling companions Steamboats on the Ohio 
The Elk The Ohio river The Harmonists Steubenville Wheeling 
Marietta Portsmouth Kentucky The dead steamboat captain 
Kentucky funeral. 


A glimpse of Kentucky .-Cincinnati The Queen city Views in refer 
ence to missionary labour The kind of missionaries wanted in the great 
Valley Walnut Hills Lane Seminary Dr. Beecher Woodward Col - 
lege Dr. Aydelott The old Kentucky man Louisville The Gait House 


View of the interior of Kentucky PlantationsA sore evil Kentuck- 
ian traits of character A thrilling incident. 


The Ohio near its mouth: New Albany Sailing down the Ohio- 
Profanity Lovely views of nature A sudden squall on the river- 
Kentucky shore Young fawn The mouth of the Tennessee river The 
swimming deer His struggle and capture Meeting of the waters of the 
Ohio with the Mississippi Gambling Intemperance Sail up the Mis 
sissippi to St. Louis. 


The Mississippi and some of its tributaries : St. Louis Roman 
cathedral Desecration of the Sabbath (Golden sunsets Sail up the 
Mississippi The meeting of the waters of the Missouri and the 
Mississippi Alton The burning prairie. 

CHAPTER IX. - - - 105 

Further views on the Mississippi : Des Moines River Iowa Group of 
Indians Tributary streams to the Mississippi Galena Bishop of Illinois 
My sister's grave. 

CHAPTER X. - - 114 

Illinois and the Lakes : Lead mines Indian treaty Ride to Chicago 
Vast prairies The stricken family Amusing adventures Chicago 
Milwaukie Mackinaw Indian encampment. 

CHAPTER XL - - 126 

Michigan: Steamboat travelling upon the western Lakes The 
waters of Huron Saginaw Bay The stormy night The beautiful St. 
Clair Detroit Bishop of Michigan Ypsilanti Ann Arbour Ore Creek 
Bewildered at night in the woods Rescue Meeting of friends Log 

CHAPTER XII. - - 140 

Tour from the West: The Romanists Miracles Indians Captain 

M The unhappy sailor Toledo Cleveland Buffalo Niagara 


CHAPTER XIII. f - ; 151 

Western JVezo York : Niagara Falls Rochester Canandaigua Gene 
vaSeneca Lake The moonlit heavens Departed friends The clergy 
man's son The candidate for the ministry A beloved brother My 
departed mother Geneva College The Sabbath. 




A jaunt from Philadelphia to Albany : A bleak, dreary morning 
Bishop of Illinois Sail up the Delaware New York Bay Sail up the 
Hudson Unexpected meeting College friend Story of his afflictions- 
Poor African servant. 

CHAPTER XV. *- - 171 

The Irish couple : Albany The Irish mother Incidents that occurred 
five years ago The disappointed emigrants The Little Falls Rural 


Western New York. 

CHAPTER XVII. '*&* 181 

A Summer Tour .Retirement Seneca Lake Burlington, N. J. 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 


Green Wood Cemetery .Brooklyn Improvements Ride Approach 
to the Cemetery Views Beautiful scenes. 


Rhode Island .Sail up the Sound Burning of the Lexington Provi 
dence Meeting of old friends Mr. Emerson Transcendentalism- 

CHAPTER XX. - - 201 

The sudden storm : Rapid travelling Auburn Stage coach Seneca 
Lake Summer's sultry heat Sudden change Fierce tempest Immi 
nent peril. 


Reminiscences of the past : Sunday Sacred worship The sanctuary 
recalling youthful scenes Early plighted vows at the table of the Lord 
Retrospect Mournful reflections Change m the congregation Mr. 

and Mrs. N The C family Col. T Village burial ground 

C The buried pastor My Mother Palmyra Early ministerial 

labours Lyons. 



The Origin of the Mormon Delusion .-The golden Bible Moral, politi 
cal, and numercial importance of the Mormon sect Views of Revelation 
Causes that have contributed to spread Mormonism Martin Harris- 
Interview with the author Transcripts from the golden Bible Jo 
Smith, the Mormon prophet His early history First pretended revela 
tion His marriage Chest containing the golden Bible Attempts to 
disinter it Consequence Delusion of Harris Translation and publica 
tion of the Book of Mormon. 


A Utter written by Professor rfnthon : The circumstances that led to 
this letter Martin Harris His visit to New York Interview with Dr. 
Mitchell Professor Anthon. 


The Mormon, or Golden Bible .The origin of the Book of Mormon 
The statement of Mr. Isaac Hale, father-in-law of the Mormon Prophet 
Rev. Mr. Spalding's Historical Romance Mrs. Davison's statement 
The blindness of Martin Harris Testimony of the three witnesses 
The eight witnesses. 


Mormon Jesuitism : Denial of Mrs. Davison's statement in reference 
to the origin of the Mormon Bible The truth of her statement corro 
borated by a letter from the Rev. John Storrs By another from the Rev. 
D. R. Austin. 


Analysis of the Book of Mormon. 

CHAPTER XXVII. - ., 285 

Analysis of the Book of Mormon continued. 


Farther developments in relation to the Mormon imposture. 


Organization of the Mormons, and their removalto Ohio : Steps leading 
to the Mormon emigration to the West Conversion of Parley P. Pratt 
Mission to the Lamanites Sidney Rigdon His avowed conversion 
Fanatic scenes at Kirtland Dr. Rosa's letter Mr. Howe's statement 
Smith's removal. 


CHAPTER XXX. - -323 

Mormon emigration to Missouri .-^-Mission to Missouri Causes that led 
to emigration Settlement at Independence Change in operations 
Gift of tongues Rule for speaking and interpreting. 


Mormon Banking: The prophet's attempt at financiering Mr. Small- 
ing's letter. 

CHAPTER XXXII. -' ' - 337 

The Mormon Prophet and his three witnesses : An interesting public 
document The Danite band Testimony of Dr. Avard Paper drafted 
by Rigdon . 


Concluding sketch in relation to ,Mor monism. 




NATURE has a voice to instruct, as well as charms to 
please. No one can walk over the surface of this earth, 
and gaze upon .the objects and scenes that every where 
cluster around him, and not hear her instructive voice 
echoed upon his ear from ten thousand points, unless 
stupidity, or sin have sealed up his senses, and made him 
deaf as " the adder that stoppeth her ear, and will not 
hearken to the voice of charmers, charming never so 

Providence, too, has a voice, that speaks with trumpet- 
tongue in the ear of those who watch the movement of 
human events who regard the work of the Lord, and 
consider the operation of his hands. The fall of every 
leaf the opening of every grave, the subversion of king- 



The Three Gleaners. 

doms the overthrow of empires every event transpiring 
around us, reads us a lesson full of deep and solemn in 

In the various and diversified developements of human 
character whether contemplated in its rougher, or more 
polished state, there is a vast deal presented to view, from 
which an intelligent mind may gather very important ele 
ments of instruction. 

One who keeps his eye out upon these various fields, 
will scarcely fail to GLEAN something every day, either 
from nature, or Providence, or the different and ever 
varying phases of human character, that can be turned to a 
profitable account both for instruction and pleasure. 

There are, however, different kinds of GLEANING and 
different kinds of GLEANERS. The caption to this chapter 
contains an implied pledge, that there is to be brought 
before the eye of the reader three successive GLEANERS. 
And so we intend it shall be. We will at once introduce 
you to the first of the three. 

Some sixteen hundred years before the first advent of the 
Lord's ANOINTED, there lived in Bethlehem a man of 
wealth and distinction. He possessed extensive flocks 
and herds, and fields, and all the usual resources of 
oriental riches. Palestine was then the land that flowed 
with milk and honey. Though there had been periods 
when for the sins of the people the heavens were shut, and 
the dews and rains withheld till the blight of sterility 
seemed to have impressed its dreary iron aspect upon 
every smiling valley and sunny hill :- at the time to which 


The Three Gleaners. 

we refer it was not so. That whole region then poured 
forth its productions most luxuriantly, for the blessing of 
the Lord was upon the land. And now the season of the 
barley harvest had arrived, and the reapers went forth with 
their sickles to cut down the bearded and bending grain. 

This opulent citizen of Bethlehem, to whom we have 
referred, when the rising sun, ascending the deep blue 
arch of heaven and pouring its full orbed radiance over hill 
and dale, had drank up the dew drops of morning, rode 
forth into the country amid vine-clad hills, and beneath 
groves of olive and palm till he reached his own paternal 
estate. The bright luminary of day now poured down a 
full tide of heat and effulgence over the whole surrounding 
scene. The reapers were plying their glittering steel, and 
gathering the falling grain into sheaves. The sound of 
rustic music came upon his ears as he rode along through 
the fields. It was the song of the reapers. He approached 
them. They were his own hired servants. Though they 
were poor, and had to toil for their daily bread, their 
wealthy employer did not despise them. He was one who 
feared the Lord, and saw in every human form a brother. 
Kind were his words as he approached the reapers, and 
full of pious sentiment for his salutation was, The Lord 
be with you. 

Those sun-burnt and swarthy laborers, suspending for 
a moment their toil, respectfully and piously responded, 
The Lord bless thee. I know not what other pleasant 
discourse followed. An object of deep interest now pre 
sented itself to the rich owner of these grounds. In a distant 
part of the field was to be seen the slender and delicate form 
of a young female walking hither and thither to gather up 
the scattered heads of barley that had escaped the hand of 


The Three Gleaners. 

the reaper. Then said he to his servant who was set over 
the reapers : Whose damsel is this ? And he replied, It 
is the Moabitish damsel that came back with Naomi. 

That lone female, whose hand was gathering the scatter 
ed heads of barley, had known better days. She had been 
nursed in the lap of ease. She dwelt in Moab. A 
stranger came there. He had been reared near Siloa's 
sacred stream. He had been instructed in the divine law 
and his intellect had been beautified and expanded, and his 
heart softened and refined by its heavenly teaching. He 
was young and beautiful, and full of manly dignity. This 
interesting Moabitess saw the stranger. His dark lustrous 
eye met hers with an interest that mutually increased till 
love burned bright in both their bosoms. They were 
joined in wedded love, and her Mahlon was all her own ! 
No, not all for death, the insatiable archer, had fixed his 
eye upon him. Only a short period elapsed, and Mahlon 
was numbered with the dead ! She saw his bright eye 
forever shut, and the dark grave closing over his pale, 
unbreathing corse. 

Mahlon had a father, but he too had found a grave in 
that Moabitish land where they now sojourned. Mahlon 
had a brother, but that brother had fallen beneath the shaft 
of death, and his dust slumbered fast by the side of his 
dead father. Mahlon had a mother. Poor lone widow ! 
Her name was once Naomi PLEASANT, but now she 
chose to be called Mara BITTER for the Almighty had 
dealt very bitterly with her. She had buried all she 
most loved in a stranger land. Why should she not now 
return to her native land to the altars of her fathers and 
the home of her childhood ? 

Shall she go alone ? No not while Mahlon's widow 


The Three Gleaners. 

lives. The hour of parting came. Her two daughters-in- 
law for both of her sons had taken them wives in the 
land of Moab had already accompanied her several miles 
on her way to the land of her nativity. But the moment 
of separation had now come ! They stood under a cluster 
of palms a cool, refreshing spring sent forth its waters 
which flowed and gurgled along beside them. All nature 
smiled around them, but their hearts were sad. This 
widowed, childless mother after a long painful struggle 
of silent. feeling, said unto her two daughters-in-law, go 
return each to your mother's house. The Lord deal 
kindly with you, as ye have dealt with the dead and 
with me. Then she kissed them each. And they lifted 
up their voice and wept. How could they part ? They 
said, surely we will return with thee unto thy people. 
And she said nay I have nothing to offer you : I go back 
to my country stript of friends, and substance. Therefore 
turn again my daughters, why will ye go with me ? 

The deep fountains of feeling were again broken up, 
and they again lifted up their voices and wept. Then 
Orpah clasping the mother of her buried Chilion in her 
arms, fell on her neck, and, sobbing long and loud, kissed 
her and bid her a final adieu. 

Not so the beautiful, but now faded and care-worn Ruth. 
Hers was a love stronger than death. Many waters could 
not drown it. She refused to separate herself from the 
mother of him she had loved. They still lingered under 
the shade of the clustering palms. Orpah had taken her 
final leave, and her retiring form had now vanished from 
their view. The sad widowed mother, now preparing to 
start on her way, again addressed Ruth, still lingering at 
her side Behold thy sister-in-law has gone back unto 


The Three Gleaners. 

her people, and unto her gods. Return thou after thy 

But the fair and lovely Moabitess nobly replied En 
treat me not to leave thee, or to return from following 
after thee ; for whither thou goest, I will go ; and 
where thou lodgest I will lodge: thy people shall be my 
people, and thy God my God ; where thou diest I will 
die, and there will I be buried : the Lord do so to me, 
and more also, if aught but death part thee and me. So 
onward they two went together to the holy land. It was 
the beginning of the barley harvest when they reached 
Bethlehem. They were quite destitute, and scarcely 
knew how they were to provide themselves with the 
means of subsistence. But the eternal God in whom they 
trusted, and who feeds the fowls of the air, clothes the 
grass of the field, and decks the expanded petals of the 
lily with hues more brilliant and beautiful than those re 
flected from the shining robes of royalty had not forgotten 
the poor had not forgotten to insert in his law when ye 
reap the harvest of your land thou shall not wholly 
reap the corners of the field, neither shall thou gather the 
gleanings of thy harvest. * * * Thou shall leave 
them for the poor and stranger : I am the Lord your 
God. This divine injunction was reiterated again and 
again. When thou cuttest down thine harvest in thy 
field, and hast forgot a sheaf in the field, thou shalt not 
go again to fetch it: it shall be for the stranger, for the 
fatherless, and for the widow ; that the Lord thy God 
may bless thee in all the works of thine hands. Here 
was a merciful provision for the poor. The devoted 
Moabitess who had left country and home for her love to 
Naomi, was not backward in offering to go forth to glean 


The Three Gleaners. 

in the field after the reapers. It was on this errand, that 
she walked into the country, and patiently toiled beneath 
the rays of tlie scorching sun. 

It was while thus engaged, that Boaz, the rich Bethle- 
hemite, came to his reapers, and first saw the lovely 
stranger. How she - afterwards sped, those acquainted 
with the sacred story need not he told. It only remains 
for us to add, that she gleaned in the field until even, and 
beat out all that she had gleaned : and it was an ephah of 
of barley. And she took it up and went into the city ; and 
her mother-in-law saw what she had gleaned ; and she 
brought forth and gave to her that she had received after 
she was sufficed. And her mother-in-law said unto her, 
Where hast thou gleaned to-day? and where wroughtest 
thou ? blessed be he that did take knowledge of thee ! 

This is the first of the three Gleaners. The story of the 
two that follow will be much shorter. 

Circumstances, several years since, led the writer to 
spend a few days in a secluded little village, in a very re 
tired and beautiful part of the country. It was in the 
month of August, when the indications of summer were 
seen on every side the wheat fields were ready for the 
hand of the reaper, and during the livelong day there 
seemed no cessation to the tide of heat that came flowing 
down from the sun, overwhelming the broad earth and 
every creature that moved upon it with his fervid influence. 
The early dawn of morning, and the hour of twilight at 
the decline of day, seemed to be the only seasons, when 
one could walk forth with any comfort, to enjoy the 


The Three Gleaners. 

rural scenery, that the hand of the Creator had spread 
with surpassing loveliness around this spot. These 
seasons were not allowed to pass uriimpro*ved. The 
first morning that I walked forth while the grey twi 
light still lingered on hill and dale casting a sombre, 
dusky aspect over surrounding objects, as I passed along, 
refreshed by the fragrant breath exhaled from the fields, 
cheered by the notes of the feathered tribe who were 
chanting their early matin lays, and enamored with the 
glorious scene pencilled on the eastern sky, which bright 
ened and kindled into broader lines of orient radiance 
every step I took, and every moment I gazed, I saw a 
young lad, some twelve or thirteen years old, passing by 
me with a brisk step, but stooping every now and then, 
to gather up some straws of wheat, that lay scattered 
along the road. The occurrence, however, awakened no 
particular attention, and would have been forgotten, had 
not the same thing been observed in the evening. In re 
turning to my lodgings, after a ramble over the fields on 
the evening of the same day, I met this boy with quite a 
bundle of wheat under his arm, moving with a quick step, 
but stopping every now and then to gather up a single 
straw that lay in the road. 

The next morning, the circumstance had quite passed 
out of my mind, till suddenly and unexpectedly the form 
of this boy again appeared before me. He was still occu 
pied in the same manner. He seemed in a great hurry, 
and yet he stooped to pick up every straw that lay in his 
path. I felt an unusual curiosity to learn his history, and 
the motives that influenced his conduct. Upon inquiry, 
I was made acquainted with the following facts. This lad 
was an orphan boy, who resided in an old cottage, about 


The Three Gleaners. 

a mile distant from where I met him, with an aged grand 
mother, who was blind, and very poor. Her children had 
all gone down to the grave, and this boy was the only re 
presentative of her family. The old blind cottager, was 
one who trusted in the Lord, and believed that he did all 
things well. She tried to train up her child to a life of 
industry and early piety. He was a promising lad and 
seemed disposed to aid his aged grand parent, and con 
tribute to her comfort by every means in his power. 
Every evening he would read to her out of God's holy 
book, and in the day he sought some occupation by which 
he could contribute to her maintenance. At the time I fell 
in with him, he was in the employ of a wealthy farmer, 
assisting in securing the wheat harvest. This farmer re 
sided in the outskirts of the village, while the broad fields 
which he cultivated, lay abroad in lengthening expansion 
and beauty in the immediate vicinity of his dwelling. 
Several of his barns were contiguous to his dwelling, so 
that the wheat when harvested, was principally conveyed 
from the field where it grew, along the road on which I 
had taken my walks, to these barns. Hence as one 
loaded wane after another was driven along, the whole 
road became strewed with heads and stalks of wheat. 
This lad, to whom I have referred, rose a half an hour 
earlier in the morning to go on his way to his daily toil, 
and lingered a half an hour later at evening on his 
way homeward to his nightly couch, in order to gather up 
these wheat stalks that had fallen by the way. These 
wheat gleanings thus gathered up by the way he every 
night carried home with him and subsequently threshed, 
and by steady perseverance in this course was able to ob 
tain a considerable quantity of grain, to afford bread both 


The Three Gleaners. 

for himself and his aged grand parent. Was not this a 
beautiful instance of filial, piety ? This is the story of our 

Some twelve years since, it was our happiness, to have 
met a very remarkable man, who seemed to live for one 
single purpose. He possessed naturally great strength 
and brilliancy of intellect. While yet a child, a highly 
gifted mother had laid her plastic hand upon his cha 
racter, and so directed his education as to bring out the 
highest powers of his mind in symmetrical developement. 
Thus through the educational advantages he enjoyed, he 
was prepared to make large attainments, arcrto gather 
much information from every field of knowledge through 
which he walked. As he grew up, he became furnished 
with most ample stores of learning. He had the power 
to instruct and to please, and was eminently fitted to act 
upon other minds. Added to all this he was a Christian. 
He had felt the power of a Saviour's love, and had conse 
crated himself to his service. To him had been committed 
the ministry of reconciliation, and he was acting as the 
legate of the skies the ambassador of the King of kings. 
This was his business. All the powers of his mind were 
consecrated to the work of winning souls to Jesus. He 
still moved around in society. He was still the charm of 
every circle in which he was found. He did not always 
speak upon religion. He did not always stand before his 
fellow men in the attitude of a preacher. He travelled ; 
for his health required it. He walked out into the fields. 
He looked abroad over the face of nature. He moved 


The Three Gleaners. 

amid the circles of his fellow men. He engaged in literary 
pursuits and scientific investigations. But he pursued 
nothing to the neglect of ministerial duty. And from 
every circle in which he moved, from every scene he wit 
nessed, from every company he met, from every field he 
trod, from every object to which he turned his eye, from 
every investigation in which he engaged, he gleaned 
something, by which to throw new charms around reil- 
gion, and enable him to reach minds through new chan 
nels. He never for one moment lost sight of his great 
business but was all the time steadily moving forward 
to the attainment of the object for which he lived and 
laboured. All his pursuits all his enjoyments, all his re 
creations, were made to contribute at least indirectly to the 
furtherance of that great object. Like the wheat gleaning 
boy, he went to his daily labour, and relaxed no effort in 
the business of prosecuting prescribed ministerial duties, 
yet while going to and from these duties, he GLEANED BY 
THE WAY. Every flower that spread its expanded petals 
before his eye, every breath of music that fell upon his 
ear, every dew drop that glittered in the beams of morn 
ing, every little tiny insect that flitted across his path, 
every landscape that stretched before him, every mountain 
and hill that pointed upward to heaven, every forest and 
stream on which his eye rested, every star that hung out 
its golden lamp on the sable curtain of night, every inter 
view of friendship, every vicissitude of life, every incident 
of travel, every occurrence whether pleasing or painful, 
presented to his enriched intellect some new aspect of 
thought, from which he could glean materials for the 
instruction of other minds. Thus he GLEANED BY THE 
WAY. And through THESE GLEANINGS he acted upon a 


The Three Gleaners- 

thousand minds, that he could not otherwise have reach 
ed. He has gone to his reward. He sleeps in the silent 
sepulchre. But though dead, he yet speaketh. A 
thousand flowers gathered by his hand from the fields of 
literature and the scenes of active life, and by his hand 
planted in the garden of the Lord, still remain, and from 
their contiguity to Siloa's sacred font, and the blood-stained 
cross, they bloom with brighter tints, and richer fragrance, 
and still lead many to approach and fix their eye on that 
blessed cross, and ultimately to feel its transforming 
power. This is the history of our third GLEANER. And 
from the history of the three, our readers will be at no loss 
to determine what suggested to us the idea of entitling 
this volume GLEANINGS BY THE WAY. 


Views of Pennsylvania. 



Tour to Harrisburg Aspect of the country The Valley of the 
Susquehanna The passage of the River The Valley of the Juniata 
Huntingdon The Rev. John W. James His sudden exit. 

THE following twelve Chapters consist principally of 
extracts from the note book which the author kept, during 
a tour through the great Western Valley in 1837. 

On board the Canal Packet Swatara, 

Wednesday evening, June 14, 1837. 

I have never been more struck than to-day with the 
tranquilizing influence which the works of nature are 
capable of exerting upon the mind. There is a calmness, 
a solemn stillness a sweet quietude spread over field and 
forest, and all that the eye rests upon in passing through 
the country at this beautiful season, which cannot fail to 
find a response in the bosom of every beholder. I have 
no doubt a ride into the country would often operate like 
a charm to calm down the agitations, quiet the corrodings, 
and soothe the anxieties of many, who amid the engage 
ments of the city are the victims of carking care, and 



Views of Pennsylvania. 

seem to live only to wade through the fiery stream of 
perturbed and anxious feeling. 

We left Philadelphia at six o'clock this morning. The 
cars belonging to the three regular lines that run on the 
Rail Road to Harrisburg, filled with about one hundred 
and fifty passengers, and fastened to each other in one 
train, were moved by the same locomotive. There is 
something very exhilarating in the act of being borne 
through a beautiful country at the rate of fifteen miles an 
hour. It seemed as we moved along as though our whole 
train was instinct with life, and endowed with magic 
pinions, which it had only to spread abroad, and skim over 
the surface of the ground with the fleetness of the wind. 
As we passed along from the city, one varied, and verdant 
scene of all that is lovely in hill and dale, forest and field, 
orchard and farm-house, presented itself in quick succes 
sion after another filling up the whole way with images 
as beautiful and varied as are brought to the eye by every 
turn of the kaleidescope. 

The country between Philadelphia and Harrisburg in 
its outlines and agricultural aspect strikingly reminded me 
of western New York. The impress of thrift and wealth 
are enstamped upon every vale and hill-side that meets 
your eye in this vast fertile landscape. I could not but 
ask myself, however, "Is there a moral beauty here, 
displayed in the lives of those who cultivate this land, 
corresponding with the marks of material loveliness 
which the Creator has spread over all this scene ? Do the 
walls of these cottages and farm-houses resound to the 
voice of .prayer and praise with each rising and setting 
sun 1 Is the Saviour of sinners universally known, and 


Views of Pennsylvania. 

loved, and served here? Do all these people, whose 
homes are scattered along this range of country, regard 
this beautiful region as the theatre on which God has 
placed them to prepare for the skies ?" 

I know not what the state of religion may be generally 
through these counties, but when I turned to a tabular list 
to see how many churches and communicants we num 
bered in this extent of country, I felt sad to find how small 
a part of the land we had possessed, and how very little 
we, as a branch of the great Catholic Church, were doing to 
extend the kingdom of Christ even in our very neighbor 
hood. I hope other communions have done and are doing 
more to diffuse vital godliness through this section of 
the land than we, otherwise there must be a lamentable 
want of that faith which Christ came to establish on the 
earth. O when shall prayer go up as one thick cloud 
of incense from every house and hamlet scattered through 
this region, made so fair and beautiful by a divine hand ! 
Then indeed will " the valleys which stand so thick with 
corn laugh and sing, the hills will clap their hands, and 
every thing that hath breath praise the Lord." 

At Harrisburg we took the canal. Our course till 
evening lay along the valley of the Susquehanna, which 
as we proceeded we found hemmed in with mountain 
bluffs, not unlike the palisades which surmount the banks 
of the broad Hudson,, or some of the rougher mountain 
features in the neighborhood of the Highlands. The scene 
that opened before us was one of calm quiet beauty. 
There was awakened somewhat of a romantic feeling as 
we sat down to our tea, borne quietly along through the 
rural beauties that clustered thick around us, Our cabin 


Views of Pennsylvania. 

windows were thrown wide open, and we inhaled with 
delight the cool and refreshing breath of evening. On our 
right, almost within reaching distance, the road passed 
along just under the brow of a very precipitous hill, whose 
top peered up amid the clouds. On the left, parallel with 
our course, was the expanded Susquehanna : and beyond 
this beautiful stream one bluff and lofty range of hills 
rising up after another, gave to that side of the river the 
aspect of continuous mountain scenery. 

As the day declined and the sun sunk below the horizon, 
a dark mass of clouds seemed rolling up from the north 
west. This stupendous pile of clouds hung directly over 
the gap in the mountains, through which the Susquehanna 
poured its wide and troubled waters. Soon the heavens 
began to gather blackness, and the forked lightning to play 
with fearful glare on the surface of this dark mass of 
clouds, followed by loud peals of startling thunder. Al 
most immediately the rain commenced pouring down in 
torrents. The transition from the quiet scene through 
which we had been passing, to one of storm and tempest, 
was sudden and unexpected. There was a sublimity and 
awful grandeur that gathered around that hour and spot, 
which I shall not soon forget. What added to the effect, 
was, that just then we had arrived at the point, where we 
were to cross the Susquehanna. The bridge that had 
been flung up over the river to afford a passage for the 
horses to tow the boat across, had partially fallen down, 
so that it was no longer capable of use. A strong cable 
had been fixed across the stream, by means of which a 
power was applied to our boat, which, in connexion with 
the force of the current, would bear us rapidly over. It 


Views of Pennsylvania. 

began to be dark, and the rain fell violently. The waters 
seemed rough and threatening, and many of the passen 
gers felt a sense of great insecurity. To many on board, 
though I presume there was no danger, it was a moment 
of deep and awful suspense. My mind instantly run off 
into a train of serious thought. It appeared to me that 
our course this day had been not unlike the journey of 
life. At first in the May morning of our existence, we 
start off with speed and are borne as by enchantment 
through a succession of gay, bright, blooming fields. As 
we advance, though we move apparently beneath benig 
nant skies, and tread amicl many of the beauties of crea 
tion, our path all the while runs along by the side of the 
river of death. That river we must finally cross, and it 
may be amid darkness and storms, and beneath the im 
pending thunder cloud of divine wrath ! Happy are they 
whose hopes and interests are so garnered up in Christ, 
that it matters not to them ivhen, or how they cross it ! 
Happy are they who can embark upon this river with 
such a simple, and firm reliance on the Saviour, as to feel 
that there is no danger, however rough or dark the passage 
may be ! 

Thursday, June 15. When we awoke at four o'clock 
this morning, we found ourselves wending our way along 
the valley of the Juniata, a stream tributary to the Susque- 
hanna. The scenery on either side of this river is 
surpassingly beautiful, and in style not unlike that which 
we passed yesterday on the Susquehanna. The hills that 
hedge in the narrow valley of the Juniata are usually of a 
conical, or triangular shape, covered to the very summit 
with a stunted growth of forest trees. There was a 


Views of Pennsylvania. 

peaceful quiet a solemn stillness reigning through almost 
the entire extent of this valley, which to me appeared 
truly delightful. It seemed like the deep and unbroken 
silence of nature. It was to us a stillness seldom broken 
save when the sound of the boatman's horn, or the heavy 
tread of the horse on the tow path, went up the mountain 
side, and woke an echo amid the untrodden solitudes that 
stretched up those wild, and wood covered steeps. 

As we advanced farther up the Juniata we saw evidences 
of a more dense population. Villages occasionally rose 
to view. We passed Lewistown early in the forenoon, 
and heard a favorable account of the acceptableness and 
labors of our young clerical friend, the Rev. J. F. H. 
How. true it is, that wherever a faithful servant of the Lord 
is planted, there " the waste places will soon be converted 
into a fruitful field, and the desert will be made to rejoice 
and blossom as the rose !" 

Just at nightfall we passed Huntingdon, the place where 
poor James fell last August on his way to western Penn 
sylvania. This esteemed brother had been much in my 
mind in all our jaunt up the valley of this river: and it 
had occurred to me as we passed along, if there was a 
spot on earth where one could be content to lie down and 
die, far from friends and home, it was along this valley, 
amid this sweet quiet mountain scenery. One can 
scarcely look out upon these green and foliage clad heights 
and the multiplied demonstrations around him of Almighty 
power and skill without feeling his heart drawn up in 
devout adoration to the Framer of these everlasting hills. 

I was disappointed, and sorry in finding the scenery 
less beautiful at Huntingdon than at any of the former 


Views of Pennsylvania. 

points on the Juniata. The village presented an unattrac 
tive appearance. The house in which our brother* met 
his final hour was pointed out to me. It seemed a very 
gloomy and unlovely abode. As I passed the spot I felt 
the deep fountains of sensibility moved in my soul : I 
thought, that it was here, far away from the sympathy of 
his people, that this man of God lay down in the agonies 
of death. It was here that his eye was sealed for ever on 
earthly scenes and his liberated spirit mounted up to 
God ! Though to mortal eyes the circumstances of his 
death seemed most undesirable, yet we know that he went 
quickly up to tread the streets of the heavenly city, and to 
stand where he could gaze everlastingly on the unveiled 
face of Jesus, his crucified and risen Lord. O who that 
looks to the end of the glorious consummation will not 
long to depart and '* be with Christ which is far better !'V 

* The individual above referred to was the Rev. John W. James, 
assistant minister of Christ Church, Philadelphia. Mr. J. was 
travelling with his family on a summer excursion in 1836, when he 
was suddenly arrested with disease, and called from the scenes of his 
labors to " the rest which remaineth for the people of God." He was 
a faithful minister of Jesus Christ, and his memory is still most sa 
credly cherished by many, who feel that he was to them the messenger 
of salvation. 


Glimpses of Western Pennsylvania. 



Source of the Juniata Ascent of the Alleghanies The summit 
The Great Mississippi Valley Skepticism Rank growth of religious 
error Dunkards Valley of the Conemaugh Moonlight Singular 
conversation Infidel sneers. 

Saturday morning, June 1 7, 1 837. 

WE reached Hollidaysburg, a little village on the 
Juniata, where the Alleghany Portage Rail Road com 
mences, yesterday morning, June 16th, about eight 
o'clock. Our way from this point was up the mountain 
by successive inclined planes. I never saw more strik 
ingly illustrated the triumph of art over the obstacles of 

In our progress up the mountain, we at length left the 
Juniata, at a point so near its source that we saw the two 
little rills which, by their confluence, constituted the com 
mencement of that river, pouring down the precipitous 
side of the same hill, and which, separately, were so 
small that one might step over them with perfect ease. 
We traced these mountain brooks with our eye as they 
swept along over the washed and worn pebbles saw them 
unite, and then followed them in imagination till they 
swelled along the banks of the Juniata, mingled their 


Glimpses of Western Pennsylvania. 

waters with the Susquehanna, poured into the Chesa 
peake, and finally were lost in the ocean. 

In our ascending way up the mountain, we found the 
scenery altogether of a new, wild, and more rugged cast. 
Our ascent amid these vast summits, the wonderful 
velocity with which we were borne the ease with which 
we seemed to move through the gaps of the mountains, 
and over the tops of these everlasting hills surrounded at 
every step by the most picturesque and gigantic elevations, 
appeared like the effect of enchantment. Then too as we 
moved upward a change was perceptible in the atmosphere 
we felt its invigorating and exhilarating influence and 
perhaps the new buoyancy, which our spirits acquired, 
helped to impart increased effect to the majestic scene that 
stretched around us, and had laid hold of our every sense 
and feeling with the power of a giant. 

Our course was still upward upward ! and all our train 
of cars still flew upward till we reached the very tops of 
the mountain wilds and fastnesses that stood in such 
majestic grandeur around us. It was announced at length 
that we had attained the summit height of the mountain. 
Just here the rivulets changed their course. The streams 
had all flowed eastward to empty themselves into the 
Atlantic, but now they turned westward and leaped 
forward, as though eager to find repose in the deep waters 
of the Mississippi. The Conemaugh, a tributary stream 
to the Kiskiminetas takes its rise here, and appears as a 
very little rill at its commencement. 

It was with peculiar emotions that I stood on the 
summit of the Alleghanies, and strained my eye to look 
off towards the vast valley of the Mississippi, whose 


Glimpses of Western Pennsylvania. 

western boundary is terminated by the Rocky mountains, 
a distance not less than 2500 miles. I then thought what 
immense undeveloped resources does this vast valley 
contain ! What an object of sublime contemplation is 
this broad and beauteous region in its surpassing fertility 
its measureless capabilities its vast rivers its deep 
untrodden forests its boundless prairies and in its ten 
thousand rising villages and cities ! What vast, complicat 
ed and mighty sympathies are gathering around this 
valley ! What scenes are to be acted here, deciding this 
nation's civil and religious destiny ! What teeming 
millions are to be sustained by the products of this soil 
are to live and die, and be prepared for heaven or for hell 
on the broad bosom of this valley ! There is nothing but 
the gospel that can exert a saving influence upon the mass 
of mind congregating here, and make this far outspreading 
and fertile region the abode of moral beauty and the home 
of civil freedom. The gospel planting her foot here, and 
stretching her arms over the whole extent of this western 
valley, must wake up holy affections, and songs of praise 
to the sin-conquering Lamb, all along the banks of these 
thousand streams, or the blight of desolation will fall here 
and the fairest portion of God's earth will be withered 
by the scorching fire of human passion and bathed, as 
has been the old world, in seas of human blood ! There 
is but one influence that can save this mighty empire from 
the sway either of lawless anarchy or of iron-handed 
despotism, or rescue the populous millions that will spread 
over it, from the deep " damnation of hell," and that is 
the influence of the gospel. What new arguments do we 
find in this thought to lead us to be unwearied in our 


Glimpses of Western Pennsylvania. 

efforts to send Bibles, and tracts, and missionaries, and to 
establish Sunday-schools in the west ! 

I have already seen enough of western character to 
discover that while mind starts up here vigorous and 
majestic as the sturdy trees of the forest, it is exceedingly 
prone to spurn the restraints, and question the authority of 
divine Revelation. No where probably is there more avow 
ed or evident independence of mind or with a certain 
class, greater susceptibility of being gulled, by a swagger 
ing, boastful departure from the ancient landmarks of faith. 
The great adversary is always ready to persuade men that 
there is much more manliness and independence in believ 
ing something new, however false, than in adhering to 
what is ancient, however true, in the faith of our fore 

We had scarcely crossed the mountains and reached 
the level of the great valley, before we encountered a 
group of men of very singular, and grotesque appearance. 
Their beards were long and filthy, hanging down upon 
their breast. I was greatly surprised to learn that this 
savage appearance was for conscience' sake. I was told 
that these were individuals belonging to a religious sect 
called Dunkards. My informant gave me the following 
particulars in relation to this people. They sometimes 
live in distinct communities, and have all things in common. 
This, however, is not always and perhaps not generally 
the case. They do not usually build houses for public 
worship, nor believe in sustaining a ministry as a distinct 
order of men. Certain persons in their churches, they 
think, are from time to time called to preach, and these 
are denominated ministers. These individuals, however, 


Glimpses of Western Pennsylvania. 

still pursue their own secular avocations as before. They 
not only hold to baptism and the Lord's supper, but to 
washing each other's feet, and, I believe, the observance 
of an annual love feast. They also keep up the ancient 
custom of saluting each other with the kiss of charity, 
and this among all their members, whatever the color or 
sex may be. Their converts are all baptized by immer 
sion, and hence, they are sometimes called Dunkard 
Baptists. They hold to a trine baptism dipping the 
candidate three times, with the face downward into the 
water. Their sacramental seasons are periods of general 
feasting when they keep open houses, and free tables. 
In doctrine they hold to the Arian heresy, though some 
of them are decided Unitarians. They also believe, most 
of them, in universal salvation, holding that the wicked 
will be punished after death for a certain period, and then 
be restored to happiness. One of the peculiarities to 
which I have already referred, is that they feel conscien 
tiously bound to abstain from cutting the beard, or 
removing the hair that grows upon their faces. I am told 
that this sect is quite numerous in the west. 

Last evening we were slowly moving down the valley of 
the Conemaugh, on board the Canal Packet Detroit. The 
scenery on either side of the stream whose course we were 
following was bold and beautiful. The trees were covered 
with dark thick foliage at one time spreading out before 
us the view of a lengthening forest, and then again opening 
to disclose to us a rich verdant lawn a beautiful corn field 
or a smiling farm house with all its usual appendages for 
convenience and comfort. After the lingering rays of 
twilight had faded away, and night had drawn her sable 


Glimpses of Western Pennsylvania. 

covering over the woodland scenes that stretched so 
gracefully around us, the moon rose in silvery brightness, 
and poured down her rich mellow light on all the shadowy 
landscape. Now and then a floating cloud crossed her 
path, and gave a deeper momentary shade to the sombre 
shadows that here and there were flung over the face of 
nature. It was a summer evening to make one court the 
open air ; most of our passengers were on deck. Some 
were sitting apart by themselves, in silent meditation : 
some were gazing upward into the peaceful heavens 
and others, off upon the quiet scenes of nature. Others 
stood around in little groups and knots, holding various 
conversations. I was walking slowly from one end of the 
deck to the other, a silent observer of what was passing 
around me. 

At length a remark that I heard arrested my attention, 
and led me to stop and listen. The group was composed 
of some six or eight individuals, who were most of them 
evidently well educated and intelligent men, though, as it 
will appear in the sequel, exceedingly ignorant upon all 
topics connected with the gospel. One of the number 
was a physician of some standing ; another a lawyer, a 
member of the Senate in our state Legislature, who 
although young has already attracted considerable atten 
tion by the depth of his acquirements, and the brilliancy 
of his talents. 

The remark which fell upon my ear, and drew my at 
tention to the discussion that was going on in this little 
group was " that any man would find it hard work to 
be an infidel." I was glad to hear such testimony from 
such a quarter. As it was regarded no intrusion to sit or 



Glimpses of Western Pennsylvania. 

stand any where, where one chose on the deck, I found an 
unoccupied seat near this little knot of gentlemen, which I 
immediately took with a view of listening to their conversa 
tion now that it had turned upon the subject of Christiani 
ty. The question had been raised as to what constituted 
a Christian, when one of the company thus delivered 
himself : 

" He may be called a Christian who acknowledges the 
divine authority of the doctrines and precepts of the 

This remark the more interested me, as it came from 
one who had spent much of his time since we entered the 
packet in card-playing. As the conversation progressed, I 
became more and more interested but determined to con 
tinue a silent listener. The general style of remark, was of 
a character that evinced beyond all question a consummate 
ignorance on the part of the speakers, not only of the real 
design of the gospel, but of the leading truths which the 
Bible unfolds. I could not but think how melancholy it 
was that so many of the distinguished men of our country 
who were well educated in other matters should be so pro 
foundly ignorant, in the science of all others most import 
ant. I could not but fear that the individuals congregated 
in that little group but too truly represented several classes 
in our country, which taken collectively constituted the 
majority of our population. I was so struck and so pained 
at what I heard that I felt constrained to note down the 
substance of the conversation at once. 

As the conversation progressed, one of the gentlemen 

* No man can come up to the requisitions of the gospel: 


.Glimpses of Western Pennsylvania. 

neither is this expected. It of course became a perfect 
Being, like the author of Christianity, to lay down a per 
fect system. We are to aim to reach this system in all its 
demands. Some will succeed in one particular, and others 
in another. No one will come up to the required standard 
in all things. Still every one should do what he can to 
come up to the model set before us. This is my idea 
of being a Christian." 

The same individual afterwards observed, " Christ had 
great shrewdness. He never answered questions directly, 
but evasively. Take, for instance, the case when he was 
asked ' Is it lawful to give tribute unto Caesar,' he replied, 
4 render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and unto 
God the things that are God's !' this is the way he gene 
rally did. It was difficult to obtain a direct answer from 

" He was like a Yankee," said another of the company, 

" Or like a Quaker," rejoined a third, with a leering 
laugh. " I never yet could get a direct answer from a 
Quaker ; they will always answer your question by asking 

" That is because they wish neither to give offence, nor 
to get caught," replied one of the company. 

I felt it was almost sinful to sit and listen to this profane 
manner of speaking of the blessed Saviour of Him before 
whom the loftiest hierarchs in heaven cast their crowns in 
lowliest reverence. It was a page of human nature, how 
ever, that I thought it well for me to read ; and therefore, 
I sat still : 

" A really conscientious man," continued the man of 


Glimpses of Western Pennsylvania. 

law, "is just the worst witness that can be brought on to 
the stand. He has so many qualifications to make, and is 
so afraid that he shall not state every thing precisely as it 
is, he fritters his whole testimony away. A legal friend of 
mine told me the other day that he had just lost a cause 
by having a student of divinity as a witness. When he 
conversed with him in private, he thought his testimony 
would be entirely conclusive, but when sworn he made so 
many qualifications to all he stated, such as ' if he recol 
lected correctly' ' if he heard correctly' 'if he did not 
receive a false impression,' and ten thousand other 
hypotheses, which so weakened his testimony as to 
render it good for nothing." 

Again the conversation went back to the question as to 
what constitutes the substance of Christianity. One of the 
gentlemen remarked. 

" In my view the whole of it is summed up in this pre 
cept ' Do unto others as ye would they should do unto 
you.' Whoever acts on this principle is a Christian ; and 
I don't care what he believes about the Trinity, or atone 
ment, or any of the other mysteries of faith. Let him be 
a Unitarian, or Trinitarian, or believe what he chooses 
about the Deity, if he acts on this principle he will do well 
enough, and need not trouble himself about matters of 

Another of the group responded " This is undoubt 
edly true it is in accordance with common sense ; but 
some hold strange views. A lady of my acquaintance, the 
other day, was expressing great anxiety about the salvation 
of a certain acquaintance of hers. This acquaintance, 
though somewhat of a fashionable woman, and not particu- 


Glimpses of Western Pennsylvania. 

larly religious, is nevertheless a most lovely and estimable 
character. I replied to the lady expressing this anxiety, 
* If you think she is in danger, I am sure there is not much 
hope for me.' She looked very grave, and shook her head as 
though she thought my case wholly desperate. Now I think 
it is horrible for people to be cherishing such opinions about 
their neighbours looking upon all the community around 
them as going infallibly to an eternal hell, unless they have a 
certain species of faith, which is supposed to ensure to those 
who have it the favour of God, and everlasting life. I believe 
this is all a mystic dream, and whoever acts on the princi 
ple * of doing to others, as we would they should do to us,' 
may with perfect safety give to the winds all apprehensions 
about salvation, and all controversies about doctrines, and 
particular forms of faith." 

The individual who uttered these sentiments was the 
very person who had remarked that "it was hard work 
for any one to be an infidel." 

To me it seemed astonishing, that intelligent men, who 
knew any thing of the scriptures, could hold the views that 
had been broadly expressed, and yet suppose that they 
were not infidels. I was more than ever convinced that men 
might be learned in science, in law, in medicine, in politics, 
and yet be profoundly ignorant of the great design and 
prominent features of the gospel. 


Pittsburg and its Environs. 



First view of Pittsburg Its general aspect Sabbath and its em 
ployments An affecting incident Orphan children A Christian 
father in the midst of his children on the Sabbath. 

Saturday Evening, June 17. 

ABOUT nine o'clock this morning, we passed the Alle- 
ghany river just above the point where the Kiskiminetas 
falls into it ; our course thence was along the banks. The 
scenery on either side of this river, like that of all the other 
rivers we have traced, is very interesting. Its waters seem 
clear and transparent, and the banks are beautifully over 
hung with trees of a rich dark foliage. 

It was about three o'clock, P. M., when we caught the 
first view of Pittsburg. The day was unusually bright 
and sunny, and the atmosphere uncommonly clear, and our 
Pittsburgian friends congratulated us upon having so 
favorable a time in which to take the first view of their 

I was aware that the hills that encompassed this city 
were filled with bituminous coal, and that one great source 
of its wealth and prosperity were the factories moved 
by steam power which could be employed with great effect 


Pittsburg and its Environs. 

and cheapness, in consequence of the abundance of this 
coal. I was also aware that this article constituted the 
principal fuel which warmed their houses. I therefore 
expected to see a smoky city, but I was not prepared to 
see what actually, at first sight, burst upon my view a 
vast cloud of smoke rolling up in ten thousand dark 
columns, and forming a dense, murky canopy, that hung in 
expanded blackness over the whole town. The city 
seemed in its sooty and blackened houses, and in its 
columns of everlasting smoke, like one vast and extended 
group of furnaces or glass-factories. As I continued to 
gaze upon it, I was reminded of the smoke that went up 
from the plain of Sodom the morning after the destruction 
of that city, "when Abraham gat up early and looked over 
the whole plain." Our nearer approach to the city did 
not relieve me from my first impression. Every object 
and scene, every house and building within the purlieus of 
the town seemed stained, soiled, and tarnished with the 
sooty vapour that was ceaselessly ascending from its ten 
thousand chimneys. Like the frogs of Egypt this dreadful 
smoke came up into their houses, and there was no escape 
from it. The walls of the most elegant drawing-rooms bore 
evidence that the discolouring element had found its way 
there. The atmosphere every where seemed impregnated 
with it. I raised the window in my chamber, and the 
room was almost instantly filled with smoke. Almost as 
soon as I reached the church on Sunday evening, the doors 
and windows being open for the admission of air, I per 
ceived the church was filled with a cloud of smoke. Surely 
Pittsburg is a smoky city* I ask the pardon of its inhabi 
tants for this doleful description. The town certainly 


Pittsburg and its Environs. 

bears marks of great thrift and prosperity, and its inhabi 
tants do not lack in sterling excellencies of character. I 
should be very ungrateful if I did not here record the ac 
knowledgement of the many acts of kindness and hospitality 
that were extended to me during my temporary stay. 

In the manner in which the people regarded the unplea 
sant appendage connected with Pittsburg to which I have 
just adverted, I saw another evidence of the benevolence 
and wisdom of the Creator in constituting us with capabili 
ties of adapting ourselves to whatever is around us. The 
smoky atmosphere, so far from being an annoyance to the 
citizens of Pittsburg, is constantly spoken of by them as its 
beauty and glory, and seems associated in their minds with 
all the delights and interest of home. 

I have visited the environs of the city, and clambered to 
the summit of some of the hills out of which the coal is 
dug. The views from these elevations up the Alleghany 
and the Monongahela are beautiful. The scenery in every 
direction around Pittsburg, viewed from these eminences, 
would be magnificent, were it not for that unchanging cloud 
of smoke that covers the city as a canopy of darkness. 

From many a point on the lofty range of hills that en 
circle the city, you have a view at the same glance of the Alle 
ghany and the Monongahela, wending their way from dif 
ferent points through their own distinct beautiful valleys, and 
hastening on like two ardent lovers to meet and mingle into 
one ; and still farther on you see these two blended rivers 
moving off in one united stream THE BEAUTIFUL OHIO, 
which winds its serpentine way through its own rich valley, 
to meet the waters of the mighty Mississippi a thousand 
miles from this spot. 



Pittsburg and its Environs. 
Pittsburg, Sabbath Morning, June ISlh, 1837. 

The church-going bell calling worshippers to the house 
of prayer, emits sounds that fall sweetly on the Chris 
tian's ear. How delightful is the thought, that go where 
we may in this happy land, we find some who love the 
Saviour and are glad when it is said " Let us go up to the 
house of the Lord. 91 

As I sat in my room an hour since, I was attracted to 
the window, which looks out upon the back-yard, by the 
merry voices of children. I found the voices came from 
an adjoining yard; and as I looked thither I was struck 
with the wonderful resemblance which two fine looking 
boys bore to a deceased clerical friend. I was riot deceived ! 
Upon inquiry, I found that these were the orphan chil 
dren of my friend, whose image was so accurately traced 
in their countenances. Their father had been suddenly 
cut down in the freshness and vigor of manhood. Their 
mother, always delicate, survived him only a few weeks, 
and they were left alone. They were now thrown upon 
the care of their paternal grand-father, who was a Camp- 
bellite Baptist, and whose family, though very amiable, 
were not professedly pious. Thus were the children of 
this deceased clergyman, at almost the very dawn of their 
being, removed from those religious sympathies and in 
fluences that their father would most ardently have desired, 
should have encircled them. We know not what may be 
in reserve for us, or our children. We may be quickly in 
our graves, and our children may be left to be trained by 
those who have no attachment to the church of our affec 
tions and little regard for that holy religion which brings 
us into blessed union with the Framer of the skies, and 


Pittsburg and its Environs. 

the Father of our spirits. Can not we, who are bereaved 
parents, find in this thought an argument to reconcile us to 
that mysterious dispensation of Divine Providence, which 
has smitten down our tender blossoms, and covered up in 
the grave those dear ones that seemed the light of our 
eyes and the joy of our hearts ! Surely, it is the Lord 
who hath done this ! He hath made safe and ample pro 
vision for our little ones in his kingdom above ! When we 
go the way of all the earth, we shall have no anxieties 
about them about their education their morals, their 
spiritual welfare, or their future success in life. Yes, 
thou art just and righteous in all thy ways, O thou King 
of saints ! And blessed be thy name, that thou art on the 
throne, and orderest all things after the counsel of thy 
own will ! Taking hold of the everlasting covenant, we 
can leave ourselve-s, our families, our all, in thy hands, 
for eternity ! 

Sunday Evening. 

After returning from divine service this afternoon, I 
went to my room to spend a few hours in preparation for 
the evening exercises. The window of my chamber 
being open, and those of the back parlour directly under 
my room, I discovered that my kind host had his children, 
six liitle daughters, assembled there for religious instruction. 
He was a Sunday-school teacher, and his children were 
in the Sunday-school ; and yet he did not feel himself on 
this account released from the parental obligation of in 
structing his own offspring in the way of holiness. I 
could distinctly hear the sweet voices of that little assem 
bled group, one after another, reading aloud to their 


Pittsburg and its Environs. 

parent the word of God, and then his simple but striking 
comments upon the meaning of what was read. This was 
continued for awhile, and then they all united in singing 
one of the songs of Zion. Never did I listen to sounds 
sweeter than those that came from those uplifted voices, 
engaged in chanting the praises of God. Directly, how 
ever, those sweet strains were hushed. A solemn pause 
ensued. Then I heard the voice of that father going up 
to heaven supplicating a divine blessing upon his offspring. 
The prayer was a simple, earnest pleading with " the God 
and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ," for the sanctifica- 
tion and everlasting salvation of these children whom the 
Lord had given him. There was a tenderness, and 
pathos, and child-like simplicity connected with the 
prayer that deeply affected me. This manifestly was not 
an extraordinary but usual Sunday exercise in which 
parent and children were engaged. A lovelier, or holier 
scene, I could not well conceive this side of heaven. 
What a delightful occupation to the parent! What 
a blessing to the children ! When his head is laid 
low in the dust, the memory of that consecrated Sab 
bath hour, will come up with an influence to melt 
and subdue their hearts, and lead them to seek after 
their father's God. But, alas ! how is this duty of family 
instruction neglected. How many Christian parents could 
be found in any Church who habitually set apart a portion 
of the sacred day, to be employed in singing and praying 
with their children, and instructing them in the knowledge 
of Christ and his salvation ? What would be the effect, if 
all professing Christian parents were in the habit of 
spending an hour with their children this way each Sab- 


Pittsburg and its Environs. 

bath ! Would not the baptized youth of our congregations 
be a very different race of beings from what they now 
are ? Should we so frequently hear of infidelity, and out 
breaking sins among the children of Christian professors ? 
No. There is unquestionably a great neglect of duty here 
a neglect on the part of parents which results in the 
everlasting ruin of their offspring. 


Voyage on the Ohio. 



Travelling companions Steamboats on the Ohio The Elk The 
Ohio river The Harmonists Steubenville Wheeling Marietta 
Portsmouth Kentucky The dead steamboat captain Kentucky 

On board the Elk, 
Monday Evening, June 19. 

I HAVE two exceedingly agreeable travelling companions. 

The one, Mr. B , who started with a special view of 

accompanying me in this tour. He is a young gentleman 
of mature intellect, accomplished education, and ardent 
piety. The other friend we fell in with on our way to 

Pittsburg. Mr. F is a merchant, residing in Boston, 

a devoted member of the Congregational Church, a man of 
business, and of sterling Christian principle, possessing 
more of "the milk of human kindness" than ordinarily 
falls to the lot of mortals. The presence of these delight 
ful companions has taken away much of the solitariness 
one feels in having a space of so many miles thrown be 
tween him and his home. 

Whoever has travelled on any of the western rivers 
knows something about the annoyances connected with 


i&Sr i- < ^ 


Voyage on the Ohio. 

western steamboats the drinking the swearing the 
gambling. We were induced to take our passage in 
" THE ELK," from the fact that it was the only boat that 
was going down the river this morning. We soon found 
that our boat was not of the first order ; our captain, 
however, appears to be one of the most quiet, taciturn, 
and unmoveable men we ever met. 

It was about ten o'clock, that we found our boat push 
ing off from the shore, and our backs turned upon the 
clouds of smoke that hung in dense masses over what has 
been called the Birmingham of America. As we stood on 
the deck, we seemed at the moment of starting enclosed 
by a forest of dark tunnels peering up from countless 
steamers lying along the shore. More than forty of these 
were clustered together in the same group where " The 
Elk" was stationed. It is said there cannot be less than 
seven hundred steamboats moving on these western and 
south-western rivers. 

We were fully in the stream ! We began to feel that 
we were borne on the flowing bosom of the Ohio ! The 
luxury of that moment was worth travelling four hundred 
miles to enjoy ! What thronging emotions then came 
rushing upon our minds ! We remembered whither this 
stream was bearing us away from our friends perhaps 
never to return ! We thought of the vast territory it 
watered its majestic length the scenes of Indian war 
fare that had been acted upon its shores and on its surface, 
long before the axe of the white man had felled a single 
tree in those vast and unbroken forests that stood upon its 
banks, and were reflected from its mirrored surface ! It 
was even then the beautiful river, as the name Ohio de- 



Voyage on the Ohio. 

notes. It is said that " the line of beauty" is not a straight 
but waving line. If so, this river is richly entitled to its 
name. From first to last, it moves in " the line of beauty." 
So winding is its course that we usually do not see, as we 
are passing along upon it, more than a half or quarter of a 
mile in advance of us, and often not so far. Thus we see 
it in distinct sections, each section resembling a beautiful 
little lake, surrounded by its own sweet and peculiar 
scenery shut in by its verdant and variegated banks and 
wood-covered hills, and ornamented by one or two, and 
often several little green islets, around which the parted 
waters wind romantically. 

We passed the settlement of the Harmonists, or 
Economists, as they are frequently called. This 
people are the followers of Rapp, and reside at a town 
called Economy, about fifteen miles below Pittsburg. 
They also form a singular instance of the power of de 
lusion. The people belonging to this community are 
principally German emigrants, extremely ignorant, and, 
therefore, more easily controlled by a shrewd and cunning 
leader. Rapp professes to be a prophet sent from God, 
and gifted with the high privilege of holding such constant 
communication with heaven, as to receive from thence 
directions how to regulate and govern all their affairs. 
He therefore enjoins upon every individual belonging to 
the community, entire, passive submission, and implicit 
obedience to his orders. 

This self-constituted ruler claims to be their sole reli 
gious instructor. The people usually assemble on the 
Sabbath, when he speaks to them, what it concerns them 
to know in relation to the Supreme Being and his Prophet 


Voyage on the Ohio. 

and then gives them directions about their labour for 
the ensuing week, reminding them of the great importance 
of harmony and economy, assuring them, that both of 
these will be effectually secured if they undeviatingly fol 
low his directions. 

Though they have no outward ordinances, they make 
great account of an annual festival the Harvest Home. 
At the observance of this festival, after immense prepara 
tion in the way of providing all manner of good things 
to eat and drink, not less than six hours are spent at the 
table which are occupied alternately in eating, singing, 
and praying. The above particulars I received from 
several different, but well informed individuals, residing at 

In the course of the day we passed Steubenville, plea 
santly situated on the river. I had barely time during the 
landing of passengers to ascend the hill, and look into one of 
its principal streets. Its houses, like those of Pittsburg, bore 
the dingy stain so common to all this bituminous coal re 
gion. I wished to have met the Rev. Mr. M , of this 

place, with whom I had no personal acquaintance, but in 
whom I felt a particular interest on account of the silent 
and powerful influence he exerted in the institution where 
he finished his literary studies, in commending godliness 
and rebuking sin, by a holy, spotless, and unblemished 
life. The savour of his name still remained at that insti 
tution several years subsequent, at the time when Iwas 
passing through my preparatory studies there. I found 
upon inquiry that the same simplicity of faith, and single 
ness of mind, and devoted holiness of life, characterized 
his labours on the banks of the Ohio, which imparted 




Voyage on the Ohio. 

such a charm and moral power to his conduct as an 
academical student. There is nothing, after all, that can 
place such a mighty moral lever in a man's hands, as 
simple-hearted piety decided holiness of heart and life. 

We reached Wheeling just at sunset, and made our 
arrangements to remain there through the night, with a 
view of taking the stage next morning to pass into the in 
terior of Ohio, making Gambier one of the points at which 
we should stop. There having fallen heavy rains, how 
ever, the state of the roads was such that the project was 
abandoned, and we determined to keep on in the Elk. We 
felt some pleasure in being permitted to spend an hour or 
two within the limits of the " old dominion," for it was the 
first time that either of us had trod upon Virginia soil. 

Tuesday, June 20th, Cabin of the Elk, 

Passing down the Ohio. 

I know of nothing more delightful than to sit at one's 
ease, and be wafted down such a beautiful stream as this, 
winding its graceful and circuitous way through groves 
and grass-covered fields, and beauteous woodland scenes. 
Occasionally we see the banks surmounted with lofty 
bluffs that lift their proud summits up towards the clouds 
and then succeeded by bottom land studded with trees 
that bend over to dip their pendent boughs in the glassy 
surface that sweetly reflects them. As one sits in a shel 
tered nook in the cabin, gliding down such a stream, with 
such a scenery around him, and feeling the cool refreshing 
breeze fanning his fevered brow, and imparting vigour 
and new elasticity to his enervated frame, he must be very 
stupid, or very depraved, if his heart is not drawn upwards 


Voyage on the Ohio. 

and made to throb with gratitude to the glorious Framer 
of this garnished and goodly scene ! 

One acquires as he proceeds westward, largeness and 
expansion to his ideas : his mind is carried out of its 
former habits of thought, and swells away into the vast 
dimensions of the majestic rivers, and boundless tracts of 
country, over which his eye expatiates. Only think of 
sailing beyond the Mississippi, in a steamboat, still west 
ward more than two thousand miles, and find your course 
at every step skirted with the most rich and fertile lands 
which stretch away interminably before you ! 

We passed this day some interesting towns. Marietta 
appears beautiful from the river, is neatly built, and bears 
the marks of thrift and enterprise. Point Pleasant and 
Guyandot in Virginia, Gallipolis and Burlington in 
Ohio, are interesting points. 

Wednesday, June 21. 

We found ourselves this morning lying at the shore of 
Portsmouth, with the borders of Kentucky on our left. 
Being detained several hours we took a view of the town, 
found a neat little Episcopal Church, and had an interview 
with its humble, worthy, and devoted minister, the Rev. 
Mr. S . In all this western world we find that min 
isters have many trials and discouragements. The people 
are more intent upon every thing else than that of saving 
their souls. We here met, to our great delight and sur 
prise, the Rev. W. J , and his lady, on their way to 

Louisville, his future field of labour. 

The river continued to present us with the same beautiful 
views, varied now and then by loftier ridges of head-land 


Voyage on the Ohio. 

on the Kentucky side. It was about two o'clock, P. M., 
when we saw on the Kentucky shore in a solitary place, 
a house surrounded by a large collection of people. Our 
boat seemed to sympathize in the scene before us, for it 
was immediately arrested in its course, and the captain put 
on shore. I have before spoken of the captain of our 
steamer, as remarkably quiet, taciturn, and even tempered. 
We did not know that the placidity of his natural tempera 
ment could be moved, or his tongue unloosed by any 
earthly power, till the second night after our embarkation, 
when we were awakened from our sleep by the tones of 
boisterous anger, and volleys of oaths that almost froze 
our blood. It was our captain chiding his men. We 
were now to see him under new circumstances. As I 
have said, we dropped him on the Kentucky shore about 
two o'clock, while the boat went on to a small village a 
few miles below. We were told by some of the hands on 
board that the captain had stopped on account of the severe 
illness of his brother-in-law, who was the owner of the 
Elk, and its former commander. The order was to wait 
until he joined us. The Rev. Mr. J. and myself im 
proved the time of this delay by clambering up to the sum 
mit of one of the loftiest hills in the neighbourhood, 
where we had a fine view of the river and the surround 
ing scenery. When the signal for our boat's departure 
was sounded, we perceived, as we were going on board, 
a coffin covered with black velvet. We now learned for 
the first time that our boat was to go back to the point 
where we dropped our captain, and remain there until the 
funeral rites of his brother-in-law, now deceased, were 
performed. It was in vain to remonstrate* so we submit- 


Voyage on the Ohio. 

ted to the delay with as much cheerfulness as possible. 
To improve my time I determined to go on shore and 
witness a funeral among the yeomanry of Kentucky. 
The steamboat had been drawn up to the bank under the 
verdant canopy of a cluster of umbrageous trees. After 
ascending the bank, which might have been some fifty 
feet from the water to its summit, we found ourselves in 
the midst of a beautiful grove, where the underwood had 
been cut away, and the earth was carpeted with green 
sward. Most of our passengers having landed, the coffin 
was brought out from the boat and conveyed towards a 
cottage that stood some two hundred yards distant. We 
all then moved on towards the house. The first thing that 
attracted our attention in approaching this rural dwelling, 
was the number of horses fastened to the fences, and 
equipped most of them with ladies' riding saddles. 
Around and within the house we found a large company 
assembled. I was sorry to see so many rotund and rubi 
cund faces among the men, bearing unerring indications of 
intemperance. The fair daughters of Kentucky were 
certainly on this occasion more happily represented than 
the stronger sex. They were, however, very peculiarly 
dressed. They generally wore a sun-bonnet, which had 
a long frill or flounce that hung like a shawl over their 
shoulders, and carried in their hands little riding whips, 
which left us at no loss to understand who were the riders 
of the caparisoned steeds that we had seen in such numbers 
around this house of mourning. 

I pressed along through the crowd, and followed the 
coffin to the house with the hope of witnessing the reli 
gious exercises that I supposed would be performed on 


Voyage on the Ohio. 

this occasion. The house consisted principally of one 
long large room, in a corner of which the corpse was 
placed. Here also the mourners sat, and the company 
that were collecting to attend the funeral. The coffin was 
brought into this room, and placed in front of the corpse, 
which was clad in the vestments it was to wear in its 
narrow house. It was immediately in the presence of 
the mourners, and of this promiscuous company, raised 
from its position and transferred to the coffin. This being 
done, the undertaker proceeded to fasten on the lid with 
the exception of the head-piece, which was separate from 
the other. The wife, and mother, and family friends, 
then moved forward, and proceeded to take leave of the 
unbreathing dead. I never was more struck with the 
power of human sympathy. At that moment many hardy, 
sun-burnt, iron-looking faces put on all the expression of 
deep and overwhelming emotion. Tears ran down cheeks 
that one would have thought had never been wet with 
such tender drops before. Even our imperturbable cap 
tain, whom we thought proof against all feeling, and 
almost a perfect impersonation of apathy, wept and sobbed 

The coffin was then borne out into a rude open piazza 
or stoop in front of the house, and there left for some 
time till the curiosity of every gazer seemed fully glutted. 
Then again the near relatives came forward and kissed the 
dead. The widowed wife seemed almost frantic in be 
stowing the parting tokens of her affection upon the un 
breathing body of her deceased companion. I felt obliged 
to turn away, for I could not endure the sight of her wild 
frantic manner as she clasped and kissed again and again 


Voyage on the Ohio. 

the cold clay of her husband ! This finally had a close. 
Then after a short pause, a female bearing in her hands a 
pair of shears, pressed her way through the crowd, and 
proceeding to the head of the coffin, took off several large 
locks of hair that rested on the cold forehead of the dead 
man. The coffin was then immediately closed, and pre 
paration made to move towards the grave. I accosted an 
elderly lady that stood near me and said 

" Are we to have no religious services on tljis occa 
sion ?" 


" Is there no minister present to officiate ?" 

" No," was the only reply I received. 

I then turned to another and said, " Are there no minis 
ters who reside in this part of the country ?" 

"None very near here," was the response. 

I mentioned this conversation to my friend B who 

stood near, and observed to him that I regretted that such 
an opportunity should be lost, when the feelings of all 
were so subdued, to direct the minds of these people to 
the solemn realities of eternity ; that even a single prayer 
offered up at this moment might be the means of saving a 
soul. He went and spoke to our captain, mentioned that 
there was a clergyman present, and suggested to him the 
expediency of inviting him to engage in some religious 
exercises. The captain with his usual apathy, into which 
he had again relapsed, replied, " I don't know whether it 
is worth while." 

The funeral began to move off in the following order or 
rather disorder. First, the four bearers took the lead, 
carrying the coffin on two rudely hewn sticks, prepared 


Voyage on the Ohio. 

for the occasion. Then followed four or five of the near 
relatives all abreast. Then came the bereaved widow, 
riding on horseback, and after her all the assembled crowd, 
male and female, hurrying on twelve or fifteen abreast of 
each other. The funeral train proceeded near where we 
landed, and, after having gone a short distance into the 
grove, it descended into a narrow ravine, through which 
run a little brook, gurgling over its pebbly bottom. When 
the bearers reached this brook they had no other way to 
proceed but to ford it ; the others got over as well as they 
could, on logs and stones. .Having ascended the opposite 
bank, we soon reached a well trodden path, which we 
followed for some short distance, and then turned abruptly 
into a cornfield. When we had reached the central part 
of the field, which was an eminence of some height, we 
found an open grave. The excavation was at least four 
times larger than the coffin required, with a place sunk in 
the bottom just large enough to receive it. 

While we were ascending the hill near the grave, the 
captain having had some consultation with the friends of 
the deceased, and again feeling some kindlings of sensibili 
ty, sought me out from among the crowd, and very affec 
tionately throwing his arm over my shoulders thus accosted 

" I am very sorry to detain you on your journey, but the 
hands were all so much attached to Mr. R., I could not 
well send them on till the funeral was over." I replied, 
" It is perfectly right to detain us under these circum 
stances. This is a very solemn event, and one that should 
be regarded as a loud call both to you and your hands. 


Voyage on the Ohio. 

We must all soon come to this ! How important then to 
lay it to heart !" 

To all this he readily assented and replied, " Several of 
the friends have expressed a wish that you should give us 
a short exhortation at the grave." 

I felt no disposition to decline complying with this re 
quest. Accordingly when the coffin had been placed over 
the excavated grave, with the broad blue canopy over our 
heads, amid the stillness of the surrounding country 
scene, and the hill-side beneath me covered with a dense 
mass of human beings, I lifted up my voice for my Mas 
ter, and spoke to them of sin, and death, and Christ, and 
salvation. As I looked over the silent listening throng, 
I remembered that I had never met one of them before, 
and probably should never meet one of them again till 
we stood together at the judgment bar. I endeavoured 
to exhibit to them the scenes of that great and dreadful 
day, and the terms on which they would be accepted or 
rejected. I endeavoured to direct the mourners that wept 
around that grave to the balm that is in Gilead and the 
physician who is there. The countenances of all were 
solemn, and there were not wanting evidences of deep and 
tender emotion. The remarks were closed with prayer to 
the eternal Framer of earth and sky. Whether on that 
hill-side, with the Ohio rolling at our feet, and the blue 
heavens stretching over our heads, any good was done 
when we laid the dead steamboat captain in his grave, the 
developeraents of the great day must show ! In my heart 
I thanked the Lord for this opportunity of going out into 
the highways and hedges to try to compel them to come in. 


Voyage on the Ohio. 

As soon as the grave was closed up, the bell from our 
boat reminded us that we must be on our way. During 
the rest of the voyage our captain seemed very serious and 
thoughtful. At tea he requested that a blessing should be 
invoked on our meal. My friend B. sought a private op 
portunity to press the subject of personal religion upon 
his attention. He received what was offered with great 
candour, and seemed willing to prolong the conversation. 
His conduct after this to us was marked with every indi 
cation of respectfulness and attachment. The next morn 
ing we found ourselves at . Cincinnati, the city which has 
been called " THE QUEEN OF THE WEST." 


A Glimpse of Kentucky. 



Cincinnati The Queen city Views in reference to missionary 
labour The kind of missionaries wanted in the great Valley Wal 
nut Hills Lane Seminary Dr. Beecher Woodward College Dr. 
Aydelott The old Kentucky man Louisville The Gait House 
View of the interior of Kentucky Plantations A sore evil Ken- 
tuckian traits of character A thrilling incident. 

Cincinnati, Friday Morning, June Z3d, 1837. 
WE reached this city, not inappropriately called " The 
Queen of the West," yesterday morning, and bid adieu to 
the Elk and its taciturn captain. Upon the whole I have 
been greatly pleased with Cincinnati. The whole air and 
aspect of the town has reminded me more of Philadelphia 
than any city I have seen west of the mountains. Christ 
Church, in this city, is a noble building, and the interior fur 
nishes a beautiful specimen of architectural taste and skill. 
St. Paul's Church is also a tasteful structure, although I was 
not able to obtain a view of the interior. The Roman 
Catholic cathedral and college make a fine appearance, but 
the interior of the cathedral greatly disappointed me. The 
audience room is small, narrow, and mean in appearance. 
I am happy to say that in passing through this western 


A Glimpse of Kentucky. 

region I find but one impression among well-informed and 
intelligent men in relation to the growth and progress of 
popery here ; and that \s, that it is making little or no 
advances, except with the increase of foreign population. 

In my visit to Cincinnati I derived much information in 
relation to the west, as well as much personal enjoyment 
from the conversation and society of our most excellent 
brother, the Rev. J. T. B., Rector of Christ Church. He 
occupies a most important position on the walls of Zion, 
and I could not but say to myself, the more I saw and con 
versed with him, " Oh that we had a thousand such cler 
gymen at the west as he." He, as well as several other 
intelligent clergymen in this region, assured me that it 
needed only a band of well-trained, devoted, godly men, 
to plant the Episcopal Church every where through the 
whole length and breadth of this vast valley. The united 
testimony of all is, " Send us the right kind of men or 
send us none. The idea that any one will answer for a 
missionary to the west is a most fatal error. We want 
here men of enlarged and liberal views, thoroughly educat 
ed, of great prudence, energy and efficiency men who are 
willing to work, and willing to keep on working till they 
see the fruit of their labours and above all, pious, devoted 
men men full of the Holy Ghost, and burning with a 
love for immortal souls, who will speak directly to the 
hearts and consciences of people. Give us such ministers, 
and no limits need be set to the establishment of the 
Church. But if men of another stamp are to be sent, 
those whose dullness, and deadness, and inefficiency pre 
vent their getting any place among the old established 
parishes at the east, the result will be that our prospects 


A Glimpse of Kentucky. 

here for the Church wherever they plant themselves will 
be for ever ruined." 

I have heard these sentiments again and again from the 
lips of some of our most devoted ministers at the west. 
The body of clergy that now come here are going to give 
character to the Church. They are engaged in the mo 
mentous business of lay 'ing foundations. We must look 
not only to the immediate, but future results of their labours. 
In almost all places, before any thing can be done a church 
has to be built. I had no conception till I entered this 
great valley of the difficulty of finding a place in which to 
assemble the people for public worship. Almost the first 
business to be done is to effect the erection of a church. 
The clergyman who can inspire such confidence in him 
self and awaken such a degree of interest, as to lead a 
western community to embark in such an enterprize, must 
have some tact and power. Another difficulty is to induce 
the people to attend church. Vast numbers here have fallen 
into the confirmed habit of spending their Sabbaths in 
another way. It is an effort for them to go to church. 
There must be some attractions in the minister to draw 
this class of persons out, and they are here a very large, 
and respectable, and influential class. A dull, sleepy, 
rosing minister is not the man for the west. 

In the afternoon we rode out to Walnut Hills to visit 
Lane Seminary, and pay our respects to Dr. Beecher. He 
received us with that frank, blunt cordiality, which I have 
so often experienced in New England, and which makes 
its rough and cragged hills more attractive to me than all 
the luxuriant fields of the west. The pleasure of our visit 
was not a little enhanced by the presence of Miss Catharine 


A Glimpse of Kentucky. 

E. Beecher, who is widely known to the literary world 
through the productions of her gifted pen. I am sorry that 
my limits will not allow me to detail to you some parts of 
a discussion that we had upon several interesting topics 
especially in reference to the present state of the Presby 
terian Church, and of the best mode of diffusing light 

among the Roman Catholics. I certainly left Dr. B 

more than ever impressed with a high conviction of the 
brilliancy of his intellect, and the depth of his piety. 

The location of Lane Seminary is in the midst of a most 
beautiful landscape. There is just enough, and just the 
right admixture of hill and dale, forest and field, to give it 
the effect we love to feel in gazing upon a calm and quiet 
scene of beauty. In our return to Cincinnati we took 
another route, which, as we approached the town, gave us 
from the lofty amphitheatre of hills that encircle this " oc 
cidental queen" a new view of her charms. As we ap 
proached the lofty eminences in the rear of the town, while 
we gazed from the summit down upon the city, I could 
not but reflect how Jerusalem must have appeared to the 
spectator who stood upon Mount Olivet, and looked down 
upon the proud domes and busy streets that lay beneath 
him. And the thought too then occurred to me, that had 
I the gifted vision of him who once stood upon Olivet, and 
wept over Jerusalem, I might see in this beautiful city 
enough to draw forth floods of grief. With all my admi 
ration of Cincinnati, I see here abundant evidences of 
great wickedness. The temperance cause I fear has made 
but little advance in this place, and the god of this world 
holds a fearful sway over the minds of too many of its 



A Glimpse of Kentucky. 

I met last evening the Rev. Dr. Aydelott, the former 
Rector of Christ Church, who now occupies the place of 
President of Woodward College, an institution in Cincin 
nati, endowed by the munificence of a single individual, 
and which promises, with its present head, to do much 
for the cause of learning in the west. I am satisfied that 
education here is to be one of the great moral levers by 
which mind is to be raised from the darkness and degrada 
tion of sin. In the President of Woodward College I 
found a man of thorough evangelical views, sound intellect, 
and fine literary attainment. 


Louisville, Tuesday, June 27. 

It was about noon, Friday the 23d, that we left Cincin 
nati on board the steamboat Commerce. Having reached 
the great Miami, we had immediately under our eye the 
view of three states. Ohio which we were leaving 
Indiana which now constituted the right-hand bank of the 
river, and Kentucky, which still continued to present us 
with its "alternations of bottom and bluff" on the left. 
We met on board a fine specimen of plain, honest, fearless 
Kentucky character. He was an old man who cultivated 
a farm without slave labour, possessing great bluntness, a 
large share of intelligence, and an evident warm-hearted 

piety. Having formed some acquaintance with B , 

he accosted Mr. F and myself almost immediately 

upon coming where we stood, in the following manner. 
" Well, gentlemen, I find your friend here is for Christ : 
which side are you on ? I am willing to show my colours." 
He seemed very happy to know that we were trying to 
serve the same Master whom he loved. 


A Glimpse of Kentucky. 

At early dawn, on the morning of Saturday, June 24th, 
we found our steamboat lying along the shore, on which 
Louisville is built. As the heat now began to be op 
pressive, it was very reviving to leave the confined cabin 
of our steamer, and inhale the fresh breath of morning. 
Louisville is evidently a flourishing business town, con 
taining about twenty-five thousand inhabitants, ten thousand 
less than Cincinnati. We put up at the GALT HOUSE, an 
establishment which we had heard very highly commended. 
We however, in the end, did not feel disposed greatly to dis 
sent from the remark of one of the lodgers at the Hotel, who 
in true Kentucky style remarked " that the Gait House 
ivas not after all just what it was cracked up to 6e." I 
found many things to interest me in Louisville. During 
the few days that I stopped here, it was my intention to 
visit Lexington, but having been providentially prevented, 
I endeavoured to make amends for this disappointment by 
taking short excursions into the country. How could I 
fail to be delighted with the splendid corn and hemp fields 
along by the sides of which I passed ! and the luxuriant 
forests which, with their underwood cleared away, and 
grown up, as they were, with blue grass, appeared like 
noble parks affording pasture ground for the hundred 
beeves that roamed there ! How could I fail to be delighted 
with the frank, and generous, and warm-hearted hospitality 
which I every where experienced. But I saw a dark cloud 
hanging over this beautiful state ! Almost all its inhabi 
tants see it, and lament it, and hope that it may ona day 
be rolled away ! Through the politeness of a friend I was 
afforded an opportunity of visiting several large plantations 
cultivated by slaves. I was pleased with the evident 


A Glimpse of Kentucky. 

kindness with which the slaves are treated, and the happy 
contentedness which they displayed. But still I could not 
but see many evils connected with this system. And I 
have no doubt that large portions of the intelligent part of 
the people in Kentucky have juster views of these evils 
than any of their northern neighbours and that could silent 
wishes remove the difficulty the chains of bondage would 
be instantly broken. I dined with a gentleman, of great 
urbanity and professed piety, living on a small plantation 
in* the country. After dinner, we. walked out, and passed 
by the shantee in which his slaves lived. He asked me 
to look in, and talk with them, he in the mean time passing 
on, with some other gentlemen into the garden. I did so. 
In the cottage they occupied there was every appearance 
of neatness and comfort. I remarked to an intelligent 
looking woman who stood over the wash-tub 

'*. You look quite comfortable here, I suppose you are 
very happy." 

She immediately replied, "I am not happy." 

" Ah !" said I, " what makes you unhappy ? Are you 
not treated kindly by your master and his family. 

" Oh, yes !" she responded, " I have nothing to com 
plain of on that gronnd." 

" What is it then that makes you unhappy?" I asked. 

" My sins," she replied. 

I remarked that this was indeed the cause of all our 
misery ; and I then endeavoured to point her to that 
blessed fountain opened for sin and uncleanness, where she 
and all our guilty race might wash and be clean. 

As I passed along, I saw several young children around 
the establishment, and when I joined our host in the gar- 


A Glimpse of Kentucky. 

den, I told him what had passed, and inquired of him, if 
the parents of the children we saw had been regularly 
married. He appeared somewhat confused, and very 
serious but at length replied 

" This is one of the worst features of slavery. Two of 
the parents of those children are married. The woman 
with whom you were conversing is the mother of four 
children, and has never been married ? Her conscience is 
not easy." 

I inquired if such things were of common occurrence 
among the slave population? He replied "Yes and 
we cannot prevent it." Alas for that state of society which 
brings along unavoidably such sin in its train ! 

I inquired in relation to the religious instruction of the 
slaves, and was sorry to learn that it was so very defective. 
On one plantation where there were seventy slaves, the 
master was a perfect worldling, and never allowed his 
slaves to attend public worship or receive any kind of reli 
gious instruction. Must there not be something wrong in 
that state of society which places seventy immortal souls 
so entirely under the control of one individual that he can 
shut against them completely the gate of heaven ? But this 
is an unwelcome theme and I pass on. 

Perhaps there is no part of our country where there 
are such fixed and marked traits of character as in New 
England and Kentucky. There are many traits in the 
Kentuckian which I admire, and which when brought 
under the influence and control of Divine grace form the 
substratum of a noble character. One of the attributes of 
this character is an honest independence, which despises 
the meanness of stooping to get any advantage by blandish- 


A Glimpse of Kentucky. 

ment or truckling. This is evident from the common 
drayman to the high-minded planter. Another attribute in 
this character, is a love, amounting almost to a passion, for 
discussion, oratory, and public speaking. It is said, that 
in no one of the states are all political questions so 
thoroughly discussed and understood by the great mass of 
the people as in Kentucky. During the sittings of the 
courts, I am told that all leave their work, and give up 
their time to attend the trial of the various suits that are 
pending, and to listen to the speeches that are made on 
the occasion. Wherever there is public speaking, there 
the people will flock. I believe there is no state where a 
talented, eloquent ministry could effect "more than here. 
Unhappily there is much infidelity prevailing in this state, 
and yet I have no doubt that it may and will be entirely 
supplanted by the labours of a faithful and efficient ministry. 

You will be gratified to learn that the Rev. Mr. J 

has commenced his labours with great acceptableness. 
His removal to Louisville, at this time, is regarded by 
the friends of the Church in this region as a most auspi 
cious event. I have no doubt that a wide field of useful 
ness lies before him. They are erecting in Louisville a new 
Episcopal Church, and if a suitable pastor is procured, 
there is not the least question but that both churches will 
be entirely full. 

The very best specimen of true original Kentucky cha 
racter, which I have met, was on board the steamboat. The 
love of this individual for his native state amounted almost 
to a passion. Though in exterior very plain and blunt, he 
possessed uncommon intelligence, and contributed by his 
conversation in no small degree to our enjoyment. 


A Glimpse of Kentucky. 

He gave me the following statement in relation to the 
early settlement of Kentucky. 

"This was one of the most beautiful and blooming ter 
ritories over which a wild luxuriant forest ever waved.- 
And yet as it was a sort of dividing line between the 
northern and southern Indians, it became the battle-ground 
upon which these nations met and waged interminable 
wars, so that it went among the savages by the name of 
the dark and bloody land. Near the close of the revolu 
tionary war several settlements were attempted in Ken 
tucky by emigrants from Virginia. My ancestors were 
among the number. The Indians both from the south 
and north, almost immediately became jealous of these 
white settlers, and adopted the purpose of exterminating 
them. The settlers were able to keep their position only 
by building a fort and living in it. While a certain portion 
of the men worked in attempting to clear and cultivate the 
land, another portion being armed, were on watch. I was 
born in one of these forts near Boonsborough. I wore, till 
I was twelve years old, hose made of buffalo hair. Our 
chief living was upon bear and buffalo meat. We were 
in the midst of the wildness of nature. Hundreds of 
times have I seen the Indians rushing upon our fort, or 
fleeing before the sharp-speaking guns of our friends. 
People who live in the densely settled portions of our 
country, know very little about the toils and dangers, the 
sacrifices and privations which the first settlers endure." 

My Kentucky acquaintance illustrated this last remark 
by a vast number of thrilling incidents, one or two of 
which I will relate. 

When he was quite young, several of the people of 

p ;. " 

'r? * 


A Glimpse of Kentucky. 

that settlement, undertook to manufacture maple sugar. 
The winter had relaxed its rigours, and the warm sun 
began to pour down his genial rays. The snow was fast 
melting away, and the sap ran merrily from the perforated 
sugar trees. Several negroes were engaged a short dis 
tance from the fort in collecting the sap. It was supposed 
that no Indians were in the neighbourhood, as none had 
been seen for several months. Tempted by the bright 
sunny day, a daughter of one of the settlers, a young, 
beautiful, blooming girl, rambled beyond the enclosures 
of the fort, where the negroes were collecting the sugar 
sap. While she stood there, full of buoyancy and free 
from every apprehension, a negro being near, busily en 
gaged in some of the various processes of sugar-making, 
four or five wild Indians in a moment sprung upon them ! 
The negro they seized and bound, and in an instant cut 
down with their tomahawks this beautiful girl. Having 
scalped her, they fled, carrying with them the captured 
negro. The alarm was soon given at the fort. They 
were pursued overtaken, and several of them shot. The 
negro was rescued. Those that had escaped went five 
hundred miles around among the tribe to raise the war- 
cry, and then came back and again attacked the settle 
ment. In that encounter my Kentucky friend told me that 
eleven of his family relatives were killed. 

Another incident which he related was the following. 
Somewhere on a station near Kentucky river, in the spring, 
when the earth began to put on her bloom, two young 
ladies, the eldest of whom was the first child born in Ken 
tucky, went out to gather flowers. As they saw some 
very rich blossoms on the banks of the river, they took a 


A Glimpse of Kentucky. 

little skiff, and went from one side to the other collecting 
them. While thus engaged a number of Indians were in 
the canebrakes watching them. The young ladies having 
by a turn of the river passed beyond the view of their 
enemies, the Indians proposed to gather flowers, and place 
them all along the bank, where they were in ambuscade, 
so that when they returned, attracted by these flowers, 
they would come up to the bank and then the boat could 
be seized. The plan entirely succeeded, and while these 
young ladies were gaily cropping their flowers, a huge 
wild Indian sprang from his concealment into the boat. 
Their destiny then seemed sealed. They were imme 
diately borne away as captives. One of them, however, 
wore a dress handkerchief of red and brilliant colours. 
This she silently kept pulling to pieces, and dropping the 
shreds as she was hurried along through the forest. The 
friends of these young ladies soon become alarmed. 
Marks were discovered of an Indian trail. The empty 
boat was found. A band of armed men commenced pur 
suit, headed by the father of one of these young ladies. 
They discovered the shreds of the handkerchief, and 
traced them till night fall, when they suddenly came upon 
them where they were encamped. They perceived there 
was a large number of Indians, and thought secresy in 
their movements important. They waited till the Indians 
were asleep, and then the father drew near. He saw the 
two young ladies sitting by themselves, guarded by an 
Indian. The others appeared to be asleep. His men 
were at some distance, and he thought it better to go up 
unseen, and tomahawk this sentinel, and rescue his child 
without alarming the other Indians. But in attempting it, 



A Glimpse of Kentucky. 

his faithful dog which accompanied him, growled at the 
sight of these savages. In a moment they were on their 
feet and he their prisoner. They determined at once to 
put him to death. He was stripped and bound to a tree, 
and they were just levelling their pieces to fire at him. 
What a moment of awful suspense for his child who stood 
looking on ! His men, alarmed at his long absence, drew 
near, saw what was going forward, and instantly fired upon 
the Indians. A panic was immediately struck into the 
camp, and as the fire from the whites was kept up, and one 
and another Indian fell gasping on the ground, they soon 
fled and left their prisoners. The father and the two young 
ladies returned. One of them is still living, the mother of 
a large and respectable family, whose declining age is 
cheered with the comforts of a sweet hope in Christ. 

It is well for us to know something of the hardships en 
dured by the first settlers in the west. 


The Ohio near its mouth. 



New Albany Sailing down .the Ohio Profanity Lovely views 
of nature A sudden squall on the river Kentucky shore Young 
fawn The mouth of the Tennessee river The swimming deer 
His struggle and capture Meeting of the waters of the Ohio with the 
Mississippi Gambling Intemperance Sail up the Mississippi to St- 


New Albany, Indiana, 
Tuesday Morning, June 27, 1837. 

INDIANA is unquestionably destined to become one of the 
most interesting of the Western States. Its principal 
towns that stand along on the Ohio, must of course become 
very important points. This will be particularly the case 
with New Albany, which is already one of the most popu 
lous and flourishing towns in Indiana. It bears on every 
part of it the marks of a new place, and the manner in 
which every house and shed within its precincts is crowded, 
shows that it must have expansion. It is situated about 
four miles from Louisville, just below the rapids, on a fine 
broad table of land, which is so far above high water mark, 
as effectually to secure it from those inundations, occa- 


The Ohio near its mouth. 

sioned by the sudden rise of the Ohio. Some way back 
in the rear of the town, and nearly encircling it, rises up in 
a very picturesque manner, what is here called a knob, an 
elevated steppe of land, from which we look down upon 
the town and river, and see them spread out before us as 
on a map, in distinct and beautiful delineation. Louisville 
appears in the distance, and the adjacent country, which 
with the windings, and wooded scenery of the beantiful 
Ohio, presents a view so exquisite, that the imagination 
can scarcely conceive any thing more romantic. 

It is only three or four years since there were but a 
handful of inhabitants at New Albany : it now numbers six 
thousand, and is rapidly increasing in population. A very 
large proportion of its inhabitants are young, enterprising 
men from the East, who possess moderate means, and have 
come here to build up their fortunes. How important to 
bring such minds under the influence of the Gospel ! This 
is a centre from which influences for good or evil will go 
forth through the state, and I believe it may be truly 
said, it is one of those fields that " are white for the 

I met Bishop Kemper at Louisville, on his way to hold 
an ordination at Madison, another interesting town in 
Indiana, on the Ohio, between Louisville and Cincinnati. 
The bishop purposes to devote two or three months 
between this and autumn to Indiana. He appears inde 
fatigable in his efforts to promote the good cause, and every 
tongue through the whole west speaks forth his praise, and 
cheerfully accords to him the high encomium of a zealous, 
devoted, and holy man. There are now seven or eight 


The Ohio near its mouth. 

Episcopal clergymen in Indiana, and the cry still is, " The 
harvest is plenteous, but the labourers are few/' 

Steamboat, Tuesday Evening, June Z7tk. 
It was about three o'clock to-day, that we started on our 
way from Louisville, down the Ohio. It was excessively 
hot, and I experienced a languor and sense of exhaustion, 
which I do not recollect ever before to have felt. When 
the sun began to decline, and we again found ourselves 
gliding as by enchantment .over the surface, and sweeping 
through the midst of the beautiful scenery of the Ohio, I 
felt that I had passed into a new world. As I traversed the 
deck of the boat, and saw reflected from the smooth and 
mirror-like bosom of the river, the luxuriant foliage, rich 
and dark by its own deep verdure the smooth green bank 
that sloped down to the water's edge, as though to kiss the 
smiling surface that slept so quietly below the abrupt 
precipitous bluff, starting up like a mound of earth, or a 
wall of solid masonry and the head-land sweeping off into 
sloping woods that towered in majesty above the stream, I 
could not but feel, and could scarcely refrain from exclaim 
ing aloud, how beautiful and surpassingly lovely are the 
works of God ! What must the heart of that man be made 
of, who can pass through the midst of such displays of 
divine beauty, and pollute the very atmosphere as he passes 
with profanity ! This is what hundreds are daily doing. 
Almost all the hands on board of the steamboats, down even 
to the little boys, utter an oath almost every other word. 
Profane swearing is one of the crying sins of this western 
world. Oaths the most horrid are awfully common among 


The Ohio near its mouth. 

all sorts of people. Amid these scenes of varied beauty, 
where creation appears so lovely we may truly say, 

* * * Every prospect pleases 
And only man is vile. 
In vain with lavish kindness 
The gifts of God are strown." 

Men pass here in thousands, and mindless of all these 
tokens of a wonder-working Deity, continue to live as 
though there were no God in the Universe, or as if He 
existed only to afford a theme for more aggravated profanity. 
And yet looking at the matter, aside from the native deprav 
ity of the human heart, one would think that the sponta 
neous effusion of every intelligent mind whose attention 
was directed to this scene, would be, as he looked around, 
" Surely this is the teaching of the mighty God ! May 
lessons be impressed upon my heart by the outspread 
volumes before me, which no mutations of time, no excite 
ment of passion, no fascinations of the world, no devices of 
the Evil one will ever efface. Eternal Creator, here amid 
this green, boundless, majestic temple of thy works I renew 
the consecration of myself to thee, soul, body, and spirit. 
While these rivers roll their waters towards the sea while 
a spear of grass grows in these fields while a tree on these 
wooded banks is clothed with foliage in the vernal months 
yea, while the solid earth lasts, and the cycles of eternity 
move on, with thy grace will I live only to serve and 
glorify Thee." 

Wednesday, June 28th. 

While we were leisurely sailing along to-day, the 
weather being oppressively warm, and the heavens very 


The Ohio near its mouth. 

blight and sunny, and not a breath of air stirring, pyramids 
of snow-white clouds began to be piled up in the northern 
and western sky. These masses of cloud seemed heaped 
together in every fantastic form. They towered aloft like 
huge mountains of snow. What added to the interest and 
singular appearance of the scene was, that this arch of the 
snow-pillowed sky sprung directly up from a boundless 
sea of verdant foliage that stretched interminably around. 
Through these masses of white cloud, there occasionally 
appeared large interstices, like deep caverns, opening into 
the blue profound ! long .vistas through which we could 
seem to catch a view of the inmost heaven. Suddenly a 
tremendous gale struck us ; the waters of the calm Ohio 
were thrown into the utmost commotion, and the wind 
came down upon us with a power that threatened to shiver 
the steamer into a thousand atoms. The heavens gathered 
blackness, and the whole dark firmament presented a sur 
face every now and then lit up with a sheet of the most 
vivid fire. The waters ran very high, the wind roared, and 
the thunder was awful. The captain very prudently 
sought the shelter of the shore, and our boat was soon fas 
tened by a strong cable to a tree. Then the rain fell in 
torrents, as though the waters of the river itself were 
scooped up and poured upon us. We learned that a 
few days before, not far from where we were, a steam 
boat had been capsized by a similar flaw of wind. We 
were soon again on our way, moving beneath a bright 
and benignant sky, and fanned by a gentle and refreshing 
breeze. How much our course down this river resem 
bles human life ! I cannot stay to make the application, 
but will only add that they only are wise who seek the 


The Ohio near its mouth. 

shelter of God's presence as a hidingplace till the storm be 

We stopped towards evening to take in wood on the 
Kentucky- shore. We there saw for the first time the 
native cane-brake. A wood-cutter's hut was near. A little 
ragged boy came out followed by two large dogs, and a 
little pet fawn. The dogs seemed to be fond of this little 
innocent thing, which had been taken only two or three 
weeks before. It seemed as it skipped along, and played 
around the footsteps of the child, very affectionate and con 
fiding. Oh ! that hardened sinners were transformed into 
a nature as mild, and gentle, and sweet as this little fawn ! 
The, power of Christ through the gospel can alone accom 
plish this. 

Just at nightfall we passed the steamer Louisiana in 
distress. She had run upon a reef of rocks, and was in 
a sinking state. I cannot but here record the mercy of 
God which has followed us thus far in our journeyings. 
Steamboats have been blown up, and fired, and sunk, all 
around us since we started, and yet the Lord in boundless 
mercy has preserved us. 

Thursday, June 29th. 

When I awoke this morning, I found the boat was taking 
in wood at Paducah, just at the mouth of the Tennessee, 
having passed the Cumberland river in the night. We 
were now approaching a scene of interest that we had been 
long anticipating the meeting of the waters of the Ohio 
and " the father of rivers." The morning was rainy and 
unpleasant, still we were constantly on the alert, eagerly 
intent upon seeing every object of interest around us. 


The Ohio near its mouth. 

While thus looking abroad, an affecting scene presented 
itself to us. The Ohio here, having received its last large 
tributaries, had become very deep and broad. Its banks 
were covered with tangled underwood, and dense forest- 
trees presenting a scene of unbroken wildness. Now and 
then a woodman's hut was visible on the shore, and a little 
boat fastened to the bank. A deer, bounding with the 
fleetness of the wind to escape his destroyers, had reached 
the river's edge. What could be more natural than that, 
as his pursuers pressed on, he should plunge into the mids-t 
of the flowing stream ! How cool and grateful must have 
been its waters to him thus panting and faint ! But will he 
find safety here ! No. His pursuers are again upon him. 
Having seized two little skiffs they eagerly press on to 
reach him. W^c saw them gliding through the waters 
towards him. Again he puts forth all his energies, and 
dashes through the waves like an arrow through the air. 
The effort he is making is for his life. But the strong 
arms that ply the oars, send forward the little barques 
which contain his pursuers with a velocity that seems to- 
cut off the hope of escape. Now they are upon him ! 
one boat is in advance of him, and the other rushing 
towards him. His destiny seemed sealed ! But no he 
is gone ! He has darted to the depths beneath, and risen 
far beyond the furthermost boat ! He is exerting every 
nerve to reach the shore ! A few moments more, and his 
point will be gained he will be bounding through the 
Kentucky woods ! No. Hope again dies ! His pursuers 
are again upon him the boat is again between him and 
the shore. His strength is exhausted. The uplifted oar 
with dreadful stroke has fallen upon his head. The hands 


The Ohio near its mouth. 

of his fell pursuers have grasped his horns, he is dragged 
up into the boat and the huntsman's knife has made a deep 
incision in his throat. He pants, and struggles, and 
expires ! 

I said to myself the sinner is pursued by sin, and 
satan, and passion, like that chased deer. There is no 
escape for him but in Christ. Oh what a happy, blessed 
hour of deliverance is that when the arm of mercy is 
reached forth to pluck him from the hands of his de 
stroyers ! 

It was about nine o'clock this morning, when we first 
come in sight of the Mississippi. The waters of the Ohio 
had seemed muddy to us, but now they appeared clear and 
limpid compared with the muddy and discoloured stream 
which we were about to enter. There it was before us in 
all its magnificence, " the mighty father of rivers !" When 
our steamer touched its waves, it was with us a moment of 
deep and intense interest. We now turned up to breast its 
impetuous current which swept proudly along by us in 
foaming eddies. Every part of the river seemed turbid and 
thick with mud, and we could not understand how these 
waters could hold so much soil in solution. I shall never 
forget my sensations, when, shortly after we reached the 
Mississippi, I saw one of the boatmen draw up a pail full 
of this muddy water, and putting his lips to the vessel 
drink it off with apparent relish. I afterwards found it 
was the only water drank on board the steamboats, and in 
the towns situated on this river. I also found that after it 
was filtered, it was the most delightful water that I ever 
drank. One cause of its turbid appearance is the large 
portions of magnesia it holds in solution. This water de- 


The Ohio near its mouth. 

rives its peculiar characteristics from the Missouri. Above 
that stream the waters of the Mississippi are clear and 

I have already spoken of the annoyance to which we 
were constantly subjected from the profanity of those we 
encountered. And I may now add that, gambling is 
another of the vices that are rife here. On our way from 
Louisville to St. Louis there has been one incessant scene of 
gambling night and day. We have evidently had three 
professed gamblers on board. I am told that there are men 
who do nothing else but pass up and down these waters, to rob 
in this way every unsuspecting individual, they can induce 
to play with them, of his money. We saw one victim fall 
into the clutches of these blacklegs. He was a young 
merchant, I believe, from Chilicothe, Ohio. He was first 
induced to play a simple game of cards. A slight sum was 
then staked to give interest to the game. He was allowed 
for awhile to be successful and to win of his antagonist. 
He played on till he became perfectly infatuated. He 
would hardly stop long enough to take his meals. Being 
fairly within their toils, large sums began to be staked, and 
this young man did not see the vortex into which he was 
being borne until he had lost six hundred dollars. In this 
deep gambling, physicians and judges who were present 
participated. What will our country come to, with such 
examples before the people ! After being shut up for two 
or three days with such company, I thought how horrible 
it must be to be shut up in perdition with such characters 
forever ! Surely the very presence of such men, with their 
depraved passions in full play, would of itself constitute a 
perfect hell ! Another crying sin, which abounds on board 



The Ohio near its mouth. 

the western steamboats, and is fearfully prevalent through 
every portion of this western region, is the free and un 
restrained use of ardent spirits as a drink ; usually on 
board these western steamboats whiskey is used just as 
freely as water. All drink. The pilot the engineer 
the fireman all drink. The whiskey bottle is passed 
around several times a day, and then the dinner table is 
loaded with decanters. I am satisfied that more than two- 
thirds of the disasters that occur on board these steamboats, 
are attributable to this free use of ardent spirits. 

I know it will be natural to ask, can nothing be done to 
arrest the progress of these mighty evils ? A gentleman^at 

St. Louis, Captain S , has embarked in a noble effort 

to do this. Last summer he ran a boat from Galena to St. 
Louis, with these avowed principles that the Sabbath 
should be sanctified that wherever the Lord's day found 
them, there they would tie up their boat and remain till 
Monday that no ardent spirits should be brought on board 
the boat that no profane swearing should be allowed, and 
no card-playing permitted. He remarked to me that the 
exclusion of ardent spirits removed the whole difficulty 
that where there was no intoxicating drink, there was very 
little disposition to indulge in profanity or gambling. This 
gentleman has now raised forty thousand dollars, and 
hopes to bring it up to one hundred thousand in order 
to establish a line of boats on the same principle from 
Pittsburg to New Orleans. I do believe that this is one 
of the most important enterprises of the present day, and 
that the religious interests of the west are vitally connected 

with it. Captain S remarked to me, that no class of 

men, after the clergy, could exert such a prodigious in- 


The Ohio near its mouth. 

fluence for good or for evil, in the western valley, as the 
captains of steamboats. If they were only pious men, 
there is no telling how much they might do, every trip 
they made, to promote the cause of the Redeemer. 

If something be not speedily done at the west to prevent 
the profanation of the Lord's day, there will soon be no 
Sabbath. At the principal landing places along the rivers, 
business appears to go forward on the Sabbath just as upon 
any other day. Professors of religion are deeply involved in 
this sin. Goods are carried to and from their ware-houses 
at noon-day, and their clerks are busy in the counting- 
room while they are at church. Facts of this kind I do 
not guess at, but know. Will not God visit for such 
things ? Oh what will become of our land when God 
riseth up to judge the earth ? 

The whole character of the scenery, since we entered 
the Mississippi has become changed ; the banks of this great 
stream are low and marshy. They are generally covered 
with dense forests and tangled underwood, and present the 
appearance of nature in its untrodden wildness. 

Friday, June 30th. 

We to-day made a short stop at a place which bears the 
name of Western Philadelphia. There were some half 
dozen buildings, and two stores. It is only about nine 
months since the settlement commenced. Chestnut and 
Market streets were pointed out to us. Their course 
was through a flourishing cornfield, the stalks of which 
were so luxuriant and lofty, that we in vain essayed to 
reach their tops with our hands. 

There are more signs of cultivation visible, as we passed 


The Ohio near its mouth. 

along, on the Missouri than on the Illinois side. The banks 
as we proceed up the stream, occasionally rise into high 
bluffs especially in Illinois towering aloft, not unlike the 
palisades on the Hudson. Frequently one rock is piled 
upon another to such an elevation, that the summit of 
the bluff juts over the river, as though it were ready to 
tumble down upon the heads of those who were passing 
along on the quiet stream beneath. This is particularly the 
case as we enter the lead country which commences some 
time before we reach St. Louis. These lofty towering 
bluffs that rise up so perpendicularly, projecting over the 
river, afford every convenience for forming natural shot 
towers. We saw several of these lofty cliffs that were 
thus used. A little box was erected upon the summit of 
the rock, where the molten lead was poured down through 
the mould, into a little tub on the shore beneath to receive 
the shot as they fell. 

As we slowly wended our way up this mighty stream, 
we found the shores adorned with flowers, and covered 
with cane-brake and thick underwood. We also saw the 
trees loaded with grape-vines and many of them com 
pletely matted over with ivy, woodbine, and misletoe. 
The luxuriance of vegetation seemed so great, as not only 
to cover the earth, but to lift itself up suspended in the air. 

We passed to-day St. Genevieve, a French village, 
standing on a beautiful hill-side. The loveliest prospect 
stretched out before the town. We could from this 
point see the broad Mississippi in its magnificent course, 
piercing the boundless forests of eternal verdure, and 
spreading out its watery surface upon which a hundred 
green islets seemed to float. The town itself, like all the 


The Ohio near its mouth. 

French villages that we have seen on this river, appeared 
old and dilapidated, and quite destitute of every thing like 
improvement, or enterprise. I could not but contrast 
these French villages, in the midst of this rich luxuriant 
land, with their little Roman Catholic chapels, their low 
narrow houses, and abundant marks of poverty, with the 
neat, tidy, thriving villages of New England, which, 
although they rear their heads from a hard rocky soil, 
where industry has to be taxed to the utmost to obtain the 
means of subsistence, present in their beautiful church 
edifices their elegant public buildings, and well con 
structed private residences marks of thrift, industry, and 
comfort, which cannot fail to gladden the heart of the 
traveller who passes through them. Such is the dif 
ference in their influences between Protestantism and 

Twelve miles before we reached St. Louis we passed 
Jefferson barracks, a military station on the Missouri 
shore, located on a beautiful swell of land. 

Carondolet is another French village on the banks of 
the Mississippi, around which every thing appears ruinous 
and poverty stricken. 

At length St. Louis rose to view, and we hailed the 
sight with no ordinary sensations, not only as it was to be 
our resting place for awhile, but as a point of exceeding 
interest in this vast western world. 


The Mississippi and some of its tributaries. 



St. Louis Roman cathedral Desecration of the Sabbath Golden 
sunsets Sail up the Mississippi The meeting of the waters of the 
Missouri and the Mississippi Alton The burning prairie. 

St. Louis, Tuesday Evening, July 4th. 
THIS, unquestionably is destined in time to become THE 
GREAT CITY OF THE WEST. Its location is pleasant, and 
from the manner in which the upper part of the city is now 
building, I should think it would ultimately compete in re 
gularity and beauty with almost any city in the Union. Its 
most prominent public buildings at present are the theatre 
and the Roman cathedral. One of the priests politely show 
ed us through the latter building. The interior would be very 
grand and imposing, were it not for the gaudy paintings, 
intended as scriptural illustrations, suspended around the 
audience room. However much these may catch the at 
tention and awaken the admiration of the ignobile vulgus, 
they cannot fail to excite any thing but complacency in 
minds accustomed to the more chaste productions of the 
pencil. In entering the church, we passed through the 
basement, where are the confessional boxes and a small 


The Mississippi and some of its tributaries. 

. , .. . , . 

altar, on which wax candles were burning. Here we saw 
one of the sisters of charity, sitting in black vestments, in 
a solitary dusky nook, as though absorbed in holy medita 
tion. In the church we found another priest, engaged, as 
far as we could understand, in preparing a class of German 
boys for confirmation. 

I learned from an intelligent source that Romanism is 
making little or no progress among Protestants at St. 
Louis. They have found it necessary to cut off, or conceal 
many of its offensive excrescences, so that a friend re 
marked to me, that he thought that a reformation in spite 
of themselves, silent and gradual, was going on in the 
Roman Catholic Chuich. The fact is, that the great diffi 
culty at St. Louis is, that the mass of the people " care for 
none of these things." They are equally indifferent to . 
every form of religion. Of course iniquity abounds, and 
the institutions of God are trampled in the dust. The fol 
lowing fact will illustrate this point. As I went to church 
on Sunday morning, to my utter astonishment, in passing 
by the new theatre, I saw some twenty or thirty men at 
work on it masons, house-carpenters, and painters. God's 
law, Remember the Sabbath, to keep it holy, was to be of 
no account, because the people of St. Louis were anxious to 
have their new theatre opened on the evening of the Fourth 
of July ! Each one of the usual denominations has a church 
here. From all I could learif, however, I fear religion is 
at a very low ebb in St. Louis. There are numberless 
discouragements to be encountered every where in the 
West, calculated to weaken the hands and depress the 
spirits of the ministers of religion. No one can understand 
the number or nature of these discouragements, without 


The Mississippi and some of its tributaries. 

being actually on the ground. A successful missionary at 
the West must have great faith and patience, and be un 
wearied in his labours. To animate his clergy, and cheer 
them on in their toil, there could not be a better man than 
Bishop Kemper. He seems to throw sunshine around 
him wherever he goes. 

One thing struck me as remarkable at the West, and 
particularly at St. Louis. I refer to the appearance of the 
heavens at sunset. Nothing can exceed the richness and 
splendour of a western sunset. I have heard much of an 
Italian sky, but my imagination never conceived such pic 
tures of beauty and indescribable glory, as are painted 
on the sky here at the decline of day. The whole hemis 
phere seems flooded with unearthly radience. The clouds 
piled up the western sky, appear more brilliant and gor 
geous than -any or all the colours of earth can make them. 
And as you look at them, you see, through the clouds, 
apertures, which seem like golden vistas, through which 
you look almost into the heaven of heavens. 

Our Fourth of July has been spent quietly here. There 
has not been half the noise and disturbance I had antici 

Wednesday Evening, July 5th. 

We this morning left St. Louis about nine o'clock. 
Our progress up the river has been slow. Some eighteen 
miles from St. Louis we witnessed one of the most inter 
esting sights in all our journey the meeting of the waters 
of the Mississippi and the Missouri! I cannot attempt 
description ! The imagination alone can conceive it. If 
I ever had feelings of sublimity waked up in my bosom, it 


The Mississippi and some of its tributaries. 

was when our boat stood off just abreast the Missouri, and 
I looked up its mighty channel, and thought of its source 
between two and three thousand miles distant, amid those 
mountains whose tops are covered with eternal snow, and 
then thought of the sunny orange groves, near where it 
empties its waters into the ocean ! 

We stopped a few hours at Alton, Illinois, just above 
the point where the Missouri mingles its waters with the 
Mississippi. This is an interesting town, fast rising into 
importance. It is destined to become a point of great in 
terest. Its present population exceeds two thousand. 
We passed Marion City and Quincy, as we advanced up 
the river. Of the former we have heard frequent descrip 
tions. We stopped an hour or so at the latter, and en 
joyed from the high bluff on which it is built, a view of 
one of the most magnificent prospects that ever stretch 
ed before the human eye. The expanded waters of the 
Mississippi the innumerable green islets that seem to 
float on its bosom the beautiful vistas opening between 
these the boundless ocean of forest stretching off to the 
south and west, and the level, treeless, luxuriant prairie 
running back to an unknown distance all these lay at your 
feet, furnishing one of the most picturesque scenes upon 
which the eye ever gazed. I regretted the shortness of our 
stay at Quincy, not only on account of the enchanting 
loveliness of the spot, but more particularly as it deprived 
me of the pleasure of paying a visit to Dr. Nelson, the 
author of a popular work entitled, " The cause and cure 
of Infidelity," a book of sterling excellence. 

We had now passed over a long tract of river naviga 
tion since we embarked at Pittsburgh. Our eyes had 


The Mississippi and some of its tributaries. 

become almost wearied with tracing first the endless 
sylvan beauties that clustered around the banks of the 
smooth-flowing Ohio ; and then the vast, unpenetrated, 
boundless forest scenes that spread away on either side 
of us from the abrupt, muddy banks of the Mississippi. 
Our ear had become wearied with the monotony of the 
sharp, rough sound of the high-pressure engine, that was 
heard ceaselessly day and night. Books scarcely any 
longer could interest us. The character and conversation 
6f most of those around us seemed exceedingly dull and 
common-place. There was however one exception. This 
was found in the person of one of our passengers a man 
of almost herculean stature, who, we soon learned, pos 
sessed great versatility and vigour of mind. His manners, 
however, at first appeared so coarse, and his conversation 
so blunt, that there seemed something exceedingly repulsive 
connected with his character. But this impression soon 
wore away, and in a few days he became the centre of 
almost universal attraction. He was a true Kentuckian of 
the old school ; he was born and brought up amid the stirring 
scenes connected with the early settlement of his native 
state, and was perfectly familiar with all the war legends, 
and every bloody fray from the first movement of Col. 
Boone to the final expulsion of all the savage tribes from 
this their ancient hunting ground. To use his own lan 
guage, he was " born in an Indian fort, and through child 
hood fed upon bear's meat, and clothed in buffalo skins. " 
His physical strength seemed enormous, and he bore evi 
dent marks of being one of those brave, reckless characters 
that find pleasurable excitement in facing danger and death 


The Mississippi and some of its tributaries. 

in every form. Yet he was not destitute of the softer and 
more kindly feelings of our nature, and withal seemed to 
have a high and reverential regard for religion. 

It was now just at the close of a long summer's day. 
Our steamer for many a long weary hour had been push 
ing her slow course up the broad current of the Missis 
sippi, when there suddenly opened upon us a vast, far- 
extending prairie. To me this was an object of thrilling 
interest, and the more so because hitherto we had seen 
scarcely nothing upon either side of the river but unbroken 
and boundless forests, stretching away as far as the eye 
could reach to the distant horizon. But here was a vast 
expanse in which no tree, nor stump, nor stone was 
visible. Naught met the eye but the tall grass, waving 
in the breeze, bending, rising, and rolling to and fro like 
the waves of the ocean after a tempest; and this grassy 
surface interspered with wild flowers of every colour, hue 
and form. 

For a long time I watched this beauteous scene, till the 
shadows of evening began to settle down upon it. While 
I continued still gazing upon the prairie, the old Ken- 
tuckian, who stood near, was making his observations, 
and at length remarked, " That prairie on fire would be a 
noble sight ! I have seen them burning in a dark night, 
while the wind sprung up and bore on the flames like a 
sea of fire. I can tell you a good story and a true one 
about a burning prairie, and a family who perished by the 

We were urgent for him to proceed in the narrative. 
He began by giving an account of the family that perished 
in this conflagration, with whose history he seemed quite 


The Mississippi and some of its tributaries. 

familiar. It was a beautiful and touching picture of real 
life that he drew in describing this family as they lived 
somewhere in the valley of Onion River, amid the sublime 
mountain scenery of Vermont. He represented Mr. 

N , the father, as a hardy, sensible, and pious New 

England farmer. The family consisted of four children ; 
two of whom, James and Lydia, were grown up to adult 
age, while George, the next son, was about thirteen years 
old, and the youngest daughter was only eight. Mr. 

N had long toiled to accumulate a little property, but 

the increase had been so slow, that in a fit of discourage 
ment he sold his little farm, and determined to emigrate to 
the Far West, where he learned he could purchase land at 
a very low price, and procure the means of subsistence with 
very little labour. He persuaded himself that by adopting 
this course he should be doing more justice to his children 
than by remaining in a country where property, and even 
the means of subsistence for a family, could be attained 
only by years of persevering toil. There was only one 
heart made sad by this determination, and that was the 

heart of his favourite and eldest daughter. Lydia N 

was a girl of excellent sense, and some personal attractions. 
She had interested the affections of a young man who had 
grown up with her from childhood. His father owned an 
adjoining farm. The two families were quite intimate, 

and many happy hours had Charles S and Lydia 

passed together. This proposition of emigrating to the 
Far West seemed to the young people a death-blow to all 
their long-cherished hopes, as the circumstances of the 
young man did not warrant his forming a marriage con 
nexion at once. But true affection is ready to make any 


The Mississippi and some of its tributaries. 

sacrifices to attain its object. As soon as it was a settled 

point that Mr. N was to leave, Charles S 

offered to accompany him in the capacity of a hired man, 

if he would accept his services. Mr. N assented, and 

every thing was arranged accordingly. 

They were now on their way, moving in true western 
style. They expected to be weeks and months on their 
journey before they reached their distant home. The 
family and all the effects they bore with them, were carried 
in two stout wagons, each one of which was drawn by 

three yoke of oxen. Mr. N or his eldest son usually 

acted as the driver of one of these wagons, while Charles 

S took charge of the other. They had already 

been on their journey many weeks, and had penetrated so 
far into the western world as to find it necessary to pitch 
their tents each night, and seek a lodging-place wherever 
the shades of evening overtook them. They at length en 
tered the prairie country, and were for awhile almost 
spell-bound by the wide tracts of plain that stretched 
around them. To them the wonders of the boundless 
prairies appeared more amazing, because they had always 
been shut up by lofty mountains in a narrow dell, and had 
never till now looked abroad upon such amplitude and vast- 
ness of expanse. 

They had now been travelling through prairie country 
for several days. It was late in autumn, though the weather 
continued as bland as summer. The day was bright and 
sunny ; the wagons, each covered with a thick tow-cloth 
awning, and drawn by three yoke of oxen, were moving 
slowly on through the vast extended region of long grass, 
now sere and dry, which stretched around them like a 


The Mississippi and some of its tributaries. 

shoreless ocean, and gently bent and waved to and fro in 
the autumnal breeze. No house, nor stone, nor hillock, 
nor solitary tree were seen within the vast circle of the en 
compassing horizon. As the sun declined, and the 
shadows began to lengthen, the tops of a small grove began 
to be visible in the distance. The emigrants immediately 
determined to seek a place of encampment for the night in 
the neighbourhood of this grove ; for they naturally con 
cluded that they should there find a spring or rivulet that 
would furnish water for their cattle and for their own use, 
and fuel for cooking their evening meal. They had been 
successful this day in shooting a large quantity of prairie 
hens, and were anticipating a delicious repast. 

Mr. N proposed that James and himself should go 

on ahead of the wagons, and get every thing ready by the 
time they came up. They accordingly started off, having 

left Charles S to drive the forward wagon in 

which the family rode, and George to conduct the other. 

Mr. N and James, however, had gone but a few yards 

before Lydia came bounding through the long, sere grass, 
with the fleetness of a deer, bearing a tea-kettle in one 
hand, and three or four prairie hens in the other. Lydia, as 
we have before said, was full of sprightliness and vivacity, 
and she had too often clambered up the steep and rough 
sides of the Green Mountains to think any thing of a walk 
of two or three miles across the prairie. Her object in ac_ 
companying her father and brother was to hasten the 
evening meal ; and as her father made no objection, the 
group moved on with quickened step towards the distant 
woods. They had already proceeded full three miles 
when they came to a beautiful spring of cool, clear water. 


The Mississippi and some of its tributaries. 

Here they all sat down, and with grateful hearts partook 
largely of nature's refreshing beverage. In the mean time 

Mr. N drew his pipe from his pocket, and having 

filled it with the dried Indian weed, a supply of which he 
always carried with him, he soon ignited the same by 
means of his jack-knife and a flint. They were now 
only a short distance from the woods, and having filled a 
tea-kettle and a pail with water, they went forward and 
began to cut up some wood and prepare for kindling a 

And now the sun had set, and the evening shades were 
gathering fast around them. Beneath the covert of a large 
tree a fire was burning brightly, over which was suspended 
the tea-kettle ; and all things were ready for the arrival of 
the party on board of the wagons. Lydia ran out of the 
woods a little way into the prairie to see if she could any 
where discover the advancing party. She saw them about 
a half mile distant, moving slowly on, but she saw at hand, 
and near the spring, what greatly alarmed her a smoke 
and flickering blaze. She ran back in great haste and said, 
" Father, I fear in lighting your pipe you have set the 
prairie on fire !" 

Mr. N started up as though a thunderbolt had fallen 

at his feet, and rushed forward to ascertain the truth of 
Lydia's remark, James and Lydia both following him. The 
moment they had emerged from the woods and got into 
the open prairie, the awful certainty burst upon them in a 
moment ! What a sight then met their view ! The 
prairie was indeed on fire. It was now quite dusky, and 
the little flickering blaze which Lydia had seen had already 
become a sea of fire 1 The wind drove the flames in the 



The Mississippi and some of its tributaries. 

direction of their friends, whose escape seemed im 

The long dry grass, which had waved so gracefully in 
the wind, now caught every where like tinder, and sent up 
a long sheet of flame that widened and expanded every 
moment, and mounted up with increasing brightness and 
height, as though it would reach the very skies. 

The feelings of this group were excited almost to agony 
in behalf of their friends. The thought at length struck 
them that if they could only succeed in getting them 
through the long line of flame, they might save them, as 
the conflagration was evidently moving off from the place 
where they stood ; and as the column of flame seemed to 
extend more to the right than to the left, they embraced the 
determination to make an effort to reach their friends in that 
direction. Reckless of consequences, wild with despair, 
they instantly rushed forward, and succeeded in getting in 
advance of the fire in one place. But they soon saw that 
the enemy was coming upon them with the speed and the 

fury of the whirlwind. Mr. N lifted up his voice and 

shouted aloud, bidding the teams to move in this direction, 
but no sound was returned save the awful crackling of the 
advancing flames. Darkness, too, covered the whole vast 
prairie, save where this sweeping column of fire spread its 
desolating track. They could no where discover a single 
trace of the wagons ; and now they began to see the peril 
of their own situation. Already were they completely en 
vironed with the fire, and all retreat seemed cut off. The 
only hope left them was to endeavour to rush through the 
iiames and get to the windward side of the conflagration. 
Mr. N and James made their way for a while success. 


The Mississippi and some of its tributaries. 

fully through this awful tempest of flame, the daring Lydia 
keeping close at their heels. At length a point was gained 
which seemed to open the prospect of escape ; not a moment 
was to be lost, for already the fire raged around them like 

a furnace. Mr. N , drawing in his breath, dashed 

through this awful line of flame, and reached a spot where 
the consuming element ceased to rage, it having already 
swept away every vestige of combustible matter. Though 
scorched and smarting in every limb, he could not but feel 
trrateful to God for this deliverance. He instantly turned 
to see what had become of his children. At this instant he 
saw one bright, lurid sheet of fire mounting up like a vast 
wave of the ocean, and completely overwhelming them ! 
He rushed back to assist them, but the flame, like a furnace 
seven times heated, rolled its intense, fiery surge back upon 
him in such a manner that he was obliged to retreat. At 
this moment he heard Lydia shriek her dress was all on 
fire, and her brother was trying to bear her through the 
raging tempest. When it had in some slight degree abated, 
again the father rushed forward but another gust of wind 
swept such a torrent of fire over the bodies of his children 
that it was impossible for him to reach the spot where they 
were. When the burning waves had passed by, he strained 
his eyes, but in vain, to catch a glimpse of these objects of 
his affection. They were not visible. At length, as the 
fire marched on, he reached the spot where he had seen his 
children struggling with this awful element, and there he 
found them both, lying on the ground their clothes nearly 
burnt off, and their bodies half consumed by the devouring 
flame ! His poor daughter was gasping in death, and his 


The Mississippi and some of its tributaries. 

son so dreadfully burned that he could scarcely move a 
limb. The fire was still burning the roots of the grass 
around and beneath them. A little distance, however, there 
was a spot where the consuming element had exhausted 
itself; to this place he endeavoured to remove his children. 
Poor Lydia almost expired in his arms. As he laid her 
down on this black and scathed spot of earth, she faintly 
said, " Christ is my hope ! Jesus can make this resting- 
place * soft as downy pillows are !' " The father hastened 
to remove his son to the same spot. He there laid him 
with his face turned towards his sister. He soon saw that 
she was dead, and said to his father, " This is a sad night 
for us ; Lydia is gone, and I think I shall soon follow." 

" This is an hour," replied his father, "in which all we 
can do is to look to God. He has said * when thou passest 
through the fire I will be with thee.' " 

" Will you pray with me, dear father?" 

" I will," said the agonised father, and kneeling down 
on the blackened earth, while bending over one child 
already dead, and another almost ready to expire, he cried 
unto God for help and mercy. When he arose from his 
knees he perceived that James's breathing was more rapid 
and embarrassed than it had been before. A dreadful fever 
was burning through his veins. 

" I shall soon be," said the dying son, " where the flame 
can no longer kindle upon me ; and I shall be able to bathe 
in the cool, refreshing stream that flows from the throne 
of God and the Lamb." 

God grant," said the father, " that an entrance may be 
ministered unto thee abundantly into his everlasting king- 


The Mississippi and some of its tributaries. 

dom." " Amen," responded James, and died. The chill 
of death had suddenly come over him, and his spirit fled to 
the presence of his Maker and Judge. 

The father sat for a long time on the ground gazing upon 
his dead children. The curtain of darkness was drawn 
over the scene but here and there dissipated by the dying 
and reviving embers, and flickering flame that still lingered 
on almost every spot over which the awful conflagration 
had swept. An unsteady, lurid light, just sufficient to re 
veal the wide-spread scene of desolation, was thus flung 
over the dark and blackened waste where the consuming 
element had a few hours before rode on in his resplendent 
car. At the distance of a few miles, and as far to the right 
and left as the eye could reach, rose one vast extended 
column of flame, mounting up to heaven amid the darkness 
of midnight, and marching on with the speed, and fierce 
ness, and fury of the whirlwind. It was an awful and 
sublime sight ! Here the father sat by the side of his life 
less and unbreathing children ; the stillness of solitude was 
around him; and there, bursting up from amid thick 
darkness, was this tremendous conflagration, which seemed 
so bright, and fierce, and awful, that one could hardly re 
frain from thinking it would burn up the world and melt 
the elements with its fervent heat. 

But I ought before this to have told the reader the account 
the Kentuckian gave of the fate of those who were con 
nected with the advancing wagons. They had seen the 
smoke of the fire that was to cook their evening meal curl 
ing above the trees, and directed their course to that poin 
as the spot where they should meet their friends. They 


The Mississippi and some of its tributaries. 

were not at all aware of the coming of this awful confla 
gration, or of the approach of danger, till they saw the 
whole prairie directly before them lit up with one extended 
sheet of flame. No one can depict the terror, the anguish, 
the horror of that moment ! No one can depict the sublimity 
and grandeur of the scene that at that moment burst upon 
their view ! But fear and wild distraction took complete 
possession of the whole company. The very cattle that 
drew the wagons seemed to sympathise with them, and to 
discover at once that their fate was sealed. 

We have already remarked that the fire extended more 
rapidly in one lateral direction than the other. This 

Charles S observed, and immediately sought ta 

take advantage of it, and if possible get to the windward of 
the fire. But long before they reached the line of the 
flame, the fire had extended miles in this very direction. 
It was too late there was no escape the fire was every 

moment approaching them. Mrs. N clasped her 

young daughter to her bosom and sat still in the wagon. 
The oxen, as the flames advanced, became perfectly un 
manageable. They rushed forward with the fury of wild 
and maddened beasts into the thickest of the flames. The 
one team took one direction, and the other, another, but 
both of them continued to move on through the hottest 
column of flame, till at length the cattle one after another 
fell down in the yoke, suffocated by the flame, and bellow 
ing as though in the agonies of death. Long before the 
last ox had fallen, and the wagon had ceased to move, 

Mrs. N , with her youngest child clasped to her bosom, 

had given up the ghost. The tow awning which covered 


The Mississippi and some of its tributaries. 

the wagon in which she rode, took fire almost as soon as 
they met the line of flame, and instantly all the combusti 
ble materials in the vehicle were in flames. Escape seemed 
impossible, for already the oxen were moving with the 
speed of the wind through the thickest of the flames, and 

Mrs. N , clasping her child to her bosom, yielded to 

her fate, committing all to God. Poor George, not able 
to keep pace with the team he drove, as he saw the flame 
marching on, sought by running to escape from the face of 
the devouring element, but the attempt was vain. The 
whirlwind of fire soon overtook him, and like a resistless 
sea, rolled its burning waves over him. When Charles 
S saw the team he drove could no longer be con 
trolled, and that in order to follow them he must encounter 
certain death, he left them to take their own course, and 
sought to rush through the line of flame which had 
now become so expanded, that long before he passed 
the fiery column, the flesh was almost burned from his 
bones, and he at length fell down upon the burning 
earth, unable to move a step farther. The fire still moved 
on with awful, unabated fury over the wide and far- 
extended prairie. No one that looked upon that awful 
sight could have failed to have exclaimed, " What a time 
it will be for the ungodly when this whole world shall be 
on fire !" 

When the morning came, a most melancholy spectacle 
was presented to view over that blackened plain. One 
solitary living human form alone, was seen slowly moving 

amid the scene of desolation and that was Mr. N . 

He found Charles S just in the last agonies of 


The Mississippi and some of its tributaries. 

death, from whom, however, he learned the particulars 
above stated. This young man soon expired ; and Mr. 

N , alone, of all that emigrant train, was left to tell the 

sad story of THE BURNING PRAIRIE. 


Further views on the Mississippi. 



Des Moines River Iowa Group of Indians Tributary streams to 
the Mississippi Galena Bishop of Illinois My sister's grave. 

Friday Evening, July 7th. 

HAVING passed the Des Moines river, the whole country 
bordering on the west bank of the Mississippi, is denomi 
nated the Wisconsin Territory, or more commonly here, 
the Iowa country. It is indeed a most beautiful country. 
It is said that a little more than four years since, there was 
not a single white settler west of the Mississippi and north 
of Des Moines river; now, there are between thirty and 
forty thousand. The Iowa country will, undoubtedly, 
soon become a state. Its new towns are springing up 
rapidly. I stopped at Burlington, where there are more 
than twelve hundredjinhabitants, and where two years since 
there were only a few log-cabins. How important is it 
that the gospel should be planted here ! The Methodists 
are beginning to send their preachers to proclaim salvation 
here. Every where we find them first on the ground. 
Truly their promptness and zeal are to be commended. 
We have not a clergyman in this whole region. Cannot 


Further views on the Mississippi. 

one be found who is willing to go to the Iowa country ? 
Is there not one in the classes now graduating in our semi 
naries, that will come over to this Macedon and help 
them ? 

As the day declined, the scenery around us seemed still 
more pleasing. The prairies on the left bank of the Mis 
sissippi became increasingly interesting. The river stretch 
ed before us like a broad lake, indented at a hundred points 
by masses of luxuriant and thickly clustered trees, that 
seemed to float in natural and upright form upon the sur 
face. These, with all their verdant foliage, were distinctly 
reflected from the mirrored bosom of the unruffled waters, 
so that we seemed, as we gazed upon the watery surface, 
to look into the very depths of the forest, and see one tree 
standing back of another almost interminably. While thus 
gliding on, by a turn of the river we came suddenly upon 
the corner of another large prairie, and almost the first object 
that met our view were two rude bark covered wigwams that 
had just been put up on the very margin of the stream. In 
front of these cabins a fire had been kindled, either to keep 
off the musquitoes or to cook their evening meal. At the 
entrance of these Indian huts lay a dog, and around him 
stood or sat half a dozen Indian children, some of them in 
a state of almost entire nudity. Still nearer the water, 
looking into it, and off on to the opposite shore, stood the 
adult members of each family. These scarcely raised 
their head, or deigned to cast a glance at us, as our boat 
with all its clattering machinery swept proudly by. 
While I continued to look at them, and saw them standing 
amid the solitariness of the prairie, with their eyes still 
fixed upon the opposite bank of the river, where rested the 


Further views on the Mississippi. 

bones of their ancestors when I saw how dignified, and 
serious, and contemplative they seemed, I could not but re 
gard them as the last representatives of a race fast fading 
away, and who will soon scarcely have a place or name 
this side of the Rocky Mountains. It seemed to me that 
they were standing at this twilight hour looking once 
more upon the shore where rested the bones of their 
people, before they bade a final adieu to these scenes where 
they used once to hunt the deer, glide over the watery sur 
face with their bark canoes, raise the luxuriant corn, and 
build their wigwams. Strangers now possessed their 
home, and they were just bidding to the scenes of their 
chilhood a long, long farewell! Oh, thought I, that 
they could have the gospel to tame their fierceness, soften 
their savage natures, and cheer them in their solitary wan 
derings through the wilderness ! It occurred to me as 
very likely that those Indians who stood there on the bank 
of the Mississippi, knew nothing of the way of salvation, 
and very likely had never heard of the name of Jesus ! 
We know there are thousands that range over the great 
hunting grounds of the west precisely in this condition. 
We are going to meet them at the judgment bar shall we 
not make every effort to send them the gospel ? 

Saturday Evening, July 8th. 

We found ourselves, when we awoke in the morning, at 
Stevenson. This is another of those places springing up 
as by the wand of enchantment. It is located at one of 
the most beautiful points in all the west. Just here Rock 
River enters the Mississippi, separating the town from 
Rock Island, on which stands Fort Armstrong. It was in 


Further views on the Mississippi. 

reference to the section of country just around here, that 
the Black Hawk war took its rise, and all along above was 
the scene where it raged. I do not wonder that the Indians 
gave up this tract of country with reluctance. The eye 
never looked out upon a more beautiful land the imagina 
tion in its most romantic flight never conceived any thing 
more lovely. On the Iowa side, especially, the country 
sweeps off from the shore most beautifully in the form of a 
rolling prairie, covered here and there with small clusters 
of trees, that give it the aspect and loveliness of a region 
that had been under the highest cultivation for the last three 
centuries. And yet five years ago no foot trod there but 
the Indian's. 

The day passed pleasantly away. As the shades of 
evening gathered thick around us, we bade adieu to the 
mighty Mississippi, on whose broad current we had 
travelled nearly seven hundred miles. Our boat turned in 
behind an islet of living green, and pushed its way up the 
serpentine course of Fevre River. At length Galena was 
in view. It was at the close of the week, and here we 
were to seek a resting place for a number of days. 

Galena, July 15th. 

Fevre River, at Galena, runs through a narrow vale, and 
is hedged in on either side by ranges of hills. The town 
is built at the base and on the side of the western ridge, 
which is here quite precipitous. The valley itself is over 
flown with every rise of the Mississippi above this point. 
The waters of the Fevre River between Galena and its 
junction with the "Father of rivers" are very sluggish 
so that the waters of the Mississippi flow up to Galena 


Further views on the Mississippi. 

often three or four times a year, and flood the whole lower 
part of the town. Since I have been here the third rise 
which they have had this season occurred, occasioned as it 
was supposed by the melting of the snows and ice around 
the sources of the most northern tributaries of the Missis 
sippi. One thing is very remarkable in relation to the 
whole class of western tributaries to this stream. The 
freshets to which they are subject, all occur at different 
seasons, beginning with the southernmost and ending with 
the most northerly. This is accounted for by the fact, that, 
as these streams take their rise at different points of latitude 
in the Rocky Mountains, spring and summer reach the 
source of each of them in regular progression from south to 
north, by a few weeks later. This is a most merciful 
provision : for if the freshets in two or three of these 
streams were to happen at the same time, the effects would 
be desolating. Let the Red River, the Arkansas, and the 
Missouri, pour their swollen streams at the time of their 
annual freshets, together into the Mississippi, and the 
whole lower regions for hundreds of miles above and 
around New Orleans would be one unbroken sea. What 
a tremendous armament of destruction has the Almighty 
here ! Have not the inhabitants of that city which has 
seated herself as a queen at the mouth of this river, reason 
to remember that the Lord can bury them in a moment in 
the midst of the sea ? He has only to blow with his wind, 
and the waters will flow, and the depths cover them ! Let 
those who openly and remorselessly trample on every law 
of God consider this and tremble. 

Galena is by no means a pleasant town. There are 
some situations on the hills which environ it that would 
furnish delightful sites for residences, but at present these 



Further views on the Mississippi. 

are chiefly unoccupied. The streets of this place are nar 
row, and after a rain unspeakably muddy. The houses 
are small, poor, and crowded. There is nothing interest 
ing or attractive about the appearance of the town, except 
in a business point of view. Galena is the port where 
almost all the lead raised from the vast mines scattered 
through this region is brought to be shipped, and will 
therefore unquestionably be a place of great importance. 
Its moral character, I fear, is far from what we could wish 
it. Like many of these western towns, till recently, there 
has been scarcely the semblance of a Sabbath here. Drink 
ing, duelling, and gambling, have all been common. 
And yet there are many here that wish things were 
different, and are making some successful efforts to cause 
them to be so. 

The Bishop of Illinois was here, and officiated the first 
Sunday I spent in Galena. He bore his testimony very 
faithfully, in rebuking the prevailing sins of the country, 
especially duelling, Sabbath-breaking, and profane swear 
ing. I believe his counsel was very kindly received. 
There is a great deal of intelligence among the residents in 
this place, and they seem willing to have the truth preached 
to them plainly. 

To me there was one object of thrilling interest in 
Galena its grave yard! Some half-mile from the town, 
on the head lands beyond the western range of hills that 
encompassed it, where one stands and looks down into the 
valley of Fevre River, and off upon the far-spreading 
prairie, in a retired place, is the spot of earth allotted to 
the dead, shut in and guarded from unhallowed tread by a 
neat enclosure. Owing to the newness of the country, and 
the difficulty in procuring marble, scarcely a single sculp- 


Further views on the Mississippi. 

tured monument appears on this ground which has already 
become the resting place of many who were once engaged 
amid the activities of life. But affection has displayed 
itself in another form. Not a few of the graves are en 
closed by a little fence, painted beautifully white, and the 
graves are adorned with wild roses which scatter their 
fragrance and leaves over the place where rests the mould 
ered dust beneath. When I first entered this sacred en 
closure, and trod through the high tangled grass that grew 
here, I felt at each step that I was treading on holy ground. 
I was led to a spot where rested the mortal part of one 
whose image came up before me with the vividness of 
living reality. The long grass had grown, and become 
matted over her grave ! Fifteen years had elapsed since I 
had looked upon that dear form, that rested in unbreathing 
stillness below. During this period I had passed through 
many trying scenes and often drank deep into the cup of 
sorrow. And now with the image of this dear departed 
one, all of " life's troubled dream" rose up before me with 
a power that paralyzed every effort I made to subdue or 
control my feelings. I then felt and wept like a child. 
Why should I not have done so ? I was standing on the 
grave of the sister of my childhood, whose existence and 
mine for many years had run along together as though our 
being had been woven in the same web. I remembered 
how when I was but a very little child, she led me to the 
country school how we wandered together in playful glee 
on the green bank of the Housatonic, and her hand gathered 
for me the wild flowers that grew there. I remembered 
how in the wild buoyancy of childhood we strolled together 
through the orchard, and gathered fruit from a favourite 
tree ? With what kind looks and affectionate greeting our 


Further views on the Mississippi. 

dear mother met us when we returned from such a ramble ! 
And could I then fail to remember the sad hour when that 
dear sainted mother gasping in the agonies of death bade 
us all a long farewell? When a mother's kind eye no 
longer gazed upon me, was it not natural that my heart 
should turn with deeper and stronger affection to the sister 
of my childhood ? But where was she ? She no more 
came, bounding along with sparkling eyes, and flowing 
locks, and animated features at the call of her brother. 
There she lay sleeping, oh how silently, how profoundly 
in the grave ! The solitude and stillness of the mighty 
prairie were around me. No mortal was present to wit 
ness or intermeddle with the feelings or overflowings of 
my heart, save him who recognised in this heaped hillock 
of earth the resting place of the loved one of his heart 
the wife of his youth the mother of his children. To 
gether we bowed down there in silent grief? Our hearts 
were so full that we could do nothing but mingle our tears 
together over that sacred spot, which I would again travel 
all the way from the Atlantic to the Mississippi to look 
upon ! A thought full of light and glory, however, darted 
across my mind as I bent over that grave. I remembered 
that this dear sister had closed her eyes upon this mortal 
scene, full of faith, full of trust in Christ, and of calm re 
signation to his blessed will. I recollected the words of 
my Saviour, and his promise to raise the dead. This 
recollection chased away my tears, and brought a flood of 
heavenly radiance down upon that grave. I said, " my 
sister shall rise again." " The Lord Jesus will bring her 
with him." This is his promise. 

The last time I visited this grave, I brought away a little 
flower that bloomed on it. It has already faded but that 


Further views on the Mississippi. 

glorious body which Christ will give to that dear mouldered 
form will never fade, but bloom on in immortal youth, 
through the unending ages of eternity. Oh, how happy 
shall we be, when we have passed all these gloomy scenes 
that now surround us, and stand in the midst of that " land 
where the inhabitants no more say I am sick" when we 
shall have done with sin, and behold the Redeemer in all 
his glory ! May the Lord safely bring us there. 



Illinois and the Lakes. 



Lead mines Indian treaty Ride to Chicago Vast prairies The 
stricken family Amusing adventures Chicago Milwaukie 
Mackinaw Indian encampment. 

WE spent one day during the present week in passing 
through the mining country to visit several of the diggings 
in Wisconsin, and around Galena, and also the smelting 
furnaces, where the mineral is extracted from the ore and 
cast into pigs. The country through which we passed 
was one continued series of rolling prairies. It was per 
fectly enchanting to see what a perfect flower garden was 
before us wherever we went. 

We descended a mine which had been sunk about one 
hundred feet. The lead runs in veins either due north and 
south, or west and east. Veins frequently cross each 
other at right angles. If it is a north and south vein, and 
a good one and crosses an east and west vein, it becomes 
inferior from that point, and the other assumes a superior 
character, and usually is the best lead. The way the 
miners dig the lead is to pierce down perpendicularly till 
they get to the bottom of the sheet then take the base 
out and dig upwards. The lead is usually wedged in be 
tween two ledges of rocks, filling up the crevice, which 


Illinois and the Lakes. 

runs down from fifty to one hundred feet. It is frequently 
wedged in so tight that the rocks have to be blasted to 
loosen it. I went down about fifty feet where they were 
at work, and then passed along in a horizontal direction, 
about eighty feet, where the miners were knocking out the 
lead in the fissures in the rocks over their heads. We 
loitered around the mines till the decline of day. The 
shades of evening gathered over us before we had crossed 
the last prairie on our way to Galena. The moon was 
just climbing above the horizon, when a prairie wolf 
darted across our path, as though scared by the sound of 
our carriage wheels, but having run a few rods, turned 
around to look to see who were the intruders upon his 

An Indian treaty is about negotiating at St. Peters, and 
a steamer started from here a few days since to carry up 
a party who desire to be present at this gathering of the 
wild men, and to visit the majestic and stupendous scenery 
around St. Anthony's Falls. I had fully intended to have 
been one of the party, but on the eve of starting I felt my 
self forced for want of time to forego the excursion. 

The Steamer James Madison, 
Wednesday Evening, June 19lh. 

At early dawn, on Monday last, we crossed Fevre 
river, and started for Chicago in an open lumber wagon, 
'ycleped a stage. Taking our trunks for seats, we deter 
mined we would make the best of every thing, and if pos 
sible keep up good spirits, while we learned the manner in 
which people travel through new countries. Our journey, 
though attended with no little fatigue, was like a walk over 
the rosied path of pleasure, compared with a jaunt of which 


Illinois and the Lakes. 

Bishop Kemper gave me an account. He had made an 
appointment somewhere in the interior of Indiana, where 
it was necessary for him to be at a given day, and had un 
dertaken to pass over Illinois from St. Louis to that point 
by land. He was overtaken by rain which continued a 
day or two : the streams became swollen, and the roads, 
often for miles, completely overflown. All this time he 
was obliged to ride in an open wagon, the bottom boards 
of which were loose, and often slipping out, rendering it 
necessary for him every now and then to get out, and 
stand in the mud and water, till the rickety wagon could 
be again brought into a state of temporary order. During 
the last part of his journey he rode all night with the rain 
pouring down upon him, and the horses sometimes fording 
deep creeks sometimes plunging into sloughs, and then 
wading for miles through the water which had overflowed 
the road. The office of a missionary Bishop at the west, 
if he does his duty, and throws himself with all his heart 
into the work, is no sinecure. 

Our course from Galena, for the first thirty miles, was 
through beautiful oak openings, and over a rolling prairie. 
After this, on nearly to Chicago, our path lay through a 
magnificent, level prairie country. The wide sea of grass 
around us was now and then broken by a grove, springing 
up with luxuriance and beauty amid the treeless tract of 
country that stretched around on every side. These 
groves ate points of great interest, and are spoken of by 
the sparsely scattered inhabitants of northern Illinois, as 
we speak of cities and towns. The most beautiful of 
those which we passed were Buffalo, Inlet, and Paw Paw 
groves, around or near which were scenes of massacre and 
slaughter during the Black Hawk war. 

' 9- 


Illinois and the Lakes. 

As no one can conceive the sensation awakened by 
being out of sight of land at sea, till he actually stands on 
the deck of a vessel, that is ploughing her way through the 
trackless world of waters that stretch interminably around 
him, and strains his eye in vain to catch a view of one 
single fading outline of the far off shore so no one can 
conceive the emotion that rises up in the bosom of the 
traveller as he stands on the broad prairie, and sees the 
horizon settling down upon one wide sea of waving grass, 
and can behold around him neither stone, nor stump, nor 
bush, nor tree, nor hill, nor house. These vast prairies, 
though bearing a luxuriant growth of grass, would impress 
one with a sense of desolateness, were they not beautified 
with flowers, and animated with the songs and the sight 
of the feathered tribes. The view of the prairie, as it 
stretches off before you, often appears like a perfect flower 
garden. Though we were too late to see these produc 
tions in their rich vernal beauty, yet often they stood 
strewn around us on every side as far as the eye could 
reach, spreading out their rich and brilliant petals of every 
colour and hue. An intelligent lady told me that in a 
single walk over the corner of a prairie, she gathered for a 
bouquet forty different kinds of flowers ; and another in 
formed me that she had been able to gather one hundred 
and twenty different kinds. Though the music wafted 
along over these luxuriant expanses of earth be usually not 
so melodious nor varied as that to which the woodlands 
echo, there is something very animating in the wheeling of 
the plover, the chirping of the robin, and the fluttering of 
the wings of a flock of prairie hens, started up at every 
half mile of your journey. And then occasionally we saw 
noble herds of cattle feeding over these vast plains. Such 


Illinois and the Lakes. 

large, and fat, and noble-looking oxen and cows, I never 
before beheld, as I saw grazing amid the luxuriant prairies 
of Illinois. There is no fence to stay them in their 
course : they range where they choose amid the ten 
thousands of acres that stretch unenclosed around them. 

I have already intimated that this part of Illinois is as 
yet but thinly populated. It is rapidly filling up ; but for 
some years the first settlers will have to endure many 
hardships, and submit to many privations and sacrifices, of 
which we can scarcely form an idea. The following fact 
will serve to illustrate this remark. While on our way to 
Chicago, as we stopped on one occasion to change horses, 
I went in and sat down in the only house in the place. It 
was a comfortable log-cabin, and all nature looked so bright 
and sunny without, I was hardly prepared for demure and 
melancholy looks within : and yet the moment I entered, I 
saw in the countenance of the good lady of the cabin that 
her heart was ill at ease. She looked so forlorn and full 
of gloom, I determined to enter into conversation with her, 
and if possible elicit the cause of her depression. After a 
variety of inquiries, she was drawn out to give the follow 
ing sketch of herself, which I will put down as nearly as 
possible in her own words. 

" We came into this country from western New York, 
several years since. We have never failed to be amply 
remunerated for our cultivation of the soil. In a temporal 
point of view we have increased in goods. But our chil 
dren have never been to school a day since we have been 
here. We used to go to meeting every Sabbath, but here 
often for months there is no such thing known as public 
worship. A while ago, there was a minister that used to 
come once in three weeks, and preach about four miles 


Illinois and the Lakes. 

from this. But now he is dead, and we have no preaching 
at all. We have no ministers and no physicians. What 
made me more contented to reside here, was that my oldest 
daughter was married and lived my nearest neighbour, 
about two miles from this. She had three lovely and 
promising children, in whom all our hearts were bound up. 
But the grave now covers them ! They were all cut down 
one after another about six months ago by the scarlet 
fever. We could'nt get any physician to see them, and 
they all died within ten days of each other. And then we 
had to carry them ourselves to th grave. We put them 
into the ground in silence. There was no one to lift up 
the voice of prayer." 

Here the good woman seemed choked in her utterance. 
She wiped her eyes and ceased speaking for a moment. I 
remained silent, and soon she proceeded. 

" My daughter laid her loss very mnch to heart. She 
never after the death of her babes wore a bright counte 
nance. About ten days ago she was confined. Herself 
and her infant are dead ! We buried them about three 
days since. She had no physician to attend upon her, for 
there was none within thirty miles. She had no minister 
to speak to her words of heavenly consolation, for there 
are none near here. Her husband has a good farm, and 
the crops look well ; but what is all this to him, now that 
his wife and children are all gone ? He appears desolate 
and broken-hearted." 

Having listened to this touching story, I could well 
understand why the aspect of gloom sat upon her counte 
nance, and while I endeavoured in a few words to direct 
her thoughts to Him who was " appointed to bind up the 


Illinois and the Lakes. 

broken-hearted, and to comfort all that mourn," I was led 
to think of the unnumbered blessings and privileges that 
we who live on the Atlantic border enjoy, for which we 
feel little or no emotions of gratitude. How unspeakable 
are our religious privileges ! And yet how little are they 
appreciated by the great mass of the people ! Will not 
God one day visit for these things ? 

In our journey we had some singular and rather amusing 
adventures. We found all along at our log inns, for our 
refreshment, substantial food, bacon and beans, or fried pork 
and potatoes, and if we were too dyspeptic to eat these, we 
could fast, which is sometimes useful. But at night we 
frequently found ourselves placed under more embarrassing 
circumstances. A single instance will serve to illustrate 
a number of analagous cases. I select the second night after 
leaving Galena. It is after nine o'clock. The strip of 
moon that is visible emits a few feeble rays. The stars, 
half obscured, glow faintly in the heavens. Our course is 
still onward through the boundless prairie. In the distance 
may be seen the faint outline of a grove. We hope to find 
there a resting place for the night. As we approach it, we 
find it is a cluster of trees that grow on either side of 
Somonauk Creek. Our driver has already plunged his 
horses into the cool waters of the creek. The farther 
bank is gained. Our course now is beneath the noble 
elms that hang drooping over the creek, and spread abroad 
their branches forming a thick and dark shade over the road. 
We see in the distance the smoke eddying up amid the trees. 
It is the place where we are to spend the night a log 
cabin, before the door of which is kindled a fire, half 
smothered with dirt and chips, whose eddying currents 


Illinois and the Lakes. 

of smoke as they are swept into the house by the evening 
breeze expel the swarms of musquitoes that for several 
hours had been making acquaintance with us. 

When the weary traveller reaches his resting-place for 
the night, it is a great comfort to have a bed and room by 
himself to which he can retire and seek repose. But this 
is a luxury not to be expected usually by the western 
traveller. They have here what is playfully called 
" The Potter's field" a place in these log taverns in 
which they put strangers a room designed as a dormitory, 
in which all travellers, men, women and children are placed 
to lodge ! The house which we had reached at Somonauk 
Creek had a place of this sort. It was the only room in 
the house save the kitchen. Two stage loads had already 
arrived, and other travellers were coming in. I told my 

friend B that we must try to secure a bed while we 

could. In this Potter's field they gave us a comfortable 
corner with a straw bed on which to stretch ourselves. We 
were among the earliest to seek our repose. Fortunately, 
there was one bed enshrouded with curtains, which was 
assigned to a gentleman from Vermont and his newly mar 
ried bride, whom he was bringing to reside at the west. 
They went on stowing the beds with occupants, and 
spreading the floor with couches, till fourteen persons 
were disposed of, and then they found that every foot of 
ground was occupied. The landlord appeared to be full of 
the milk of human kindness. When some of our fellow 
lodgers cried out, that they were half devoured by mus 
quitoes, he very benignantly replied, * I will open the 
door and let in a current of smoke, and that will drive them 
out." We found some inhabitants tabernacling in our 
bedstead that annoyed us more than the musquitoes. Yet 



Illinois and the Lakes. 

after all we got some rest, and when we rose to breathe the 
fresh air we felt that we had abundant cause to thank the 
Lord for his goodness. However indifferent had been our 
lodgings, we remembered that the Saviour while here on 
the earth, had not always so comfortable a spot at night 
to lay his head as this. 

About a dozen miles before we reached Chicago, we 
seemed to descend to another steppe of land, where the 
prairie was for the most part from two to twelve inches 
under water. The grass, thus having its roots continually 
irrigated, looked very rank ; we made but very slow pro 
gress through it on our way. Though that part of Chicago 
which is built up, stands on more elevated ground, the an 
ticipated limits of the city extend into this wet prairie. 
We saw the lots staked out as we passed, which I suppose 
have been sold at a very high price. I could not but 
think of the remark of a fellow traveller, who, in speaking 
of this and several other places, said, " If each of these 
places do not become as large as Pekin in China, these 
city lots cannot all be built upon." 

Chicago is truly an interesting place. It has sprung up 
here in three or four years a city as by the wand of en 
chantment. I had heard much of this place, but must con 
fess I was not prepared to find so large and interesting a 
town. Its situation on either side of the Chicago river is 
too well-known to need description. It has quite the air 
of an eastern town. There is a fine brick Episcopal 
Church just completed. Our stay was very brief in 
Chicago. Almost the first sound we heard after our 
arrival, was the ringing of the bell of the large and beauti 
ful steamboat, James Madison, which was on the eve of 
departure for Detroit and Buffalo. As we might have no 


Illinois and the Lakes. 

other opportunity of going by the lakes for the next ten 
days, with the specimen of land travelling that we had just 
had, we were not long in making up our minds whether 
we would avail ourselves of this boat, or direct our course 
to Detroit through the Michigan woods. We gave Chicago 
a very hasty survey, took our passage on board the James 
Madison, and as the shades of evening gathered over us 
we found ourselves skimming over the waves of Michigan 

Mackinaw, July ZQth. 

We this morning found ourselves bounding over the 
green waters of the Michigan with the Wisconsin Terri 
tory on our left. About nine o'clock, A. M. we landed at 
Milwaukie. A bar in the river prevented the steamboat 
from going up to the town, but we found ourselves amply 
compensated for our long walk by a view of this interest 
ing place from several of its streets and more elevated 
parts. The whole site of the town, in connexion with the 
adjacent country, is richly entitled to its Indian name, 
"THE LOVELY LAND." Less than two years since there 
was scarcely a frame house on the spot, and now there is 
a population of nearly three thousand, with buildings that 
will compare in stability and elegance with those found in 
our large eastern towns. 

It was towards evening when we approached this 
picturesque spot Mackinaw where the wide expanse 
of water, and the dark evergreens of the islands, and 
the thronging multitudes of wild men, gave to this point 
in my journey a novel appearance. I think this would 
be a most delightful retreat for an invalid who wanted 
retirement, a cool, invigorating atmosphere, and induce- 


Illinois and the Lakes. 

ments to active exercise. It would be impossible, for 
a man to be here long without having new trains of 
thought awakened in his mind, or without being led to 
contemplate the human character under several new aspects. 
Mackinaw is an island of about nine miles in circum 
ference. There is a fort occupying the elevated parts of 
the town, which is now vacated, the troops having been 
withdrawn to be present at the treaty at St. Peter's. This 
circumstance, in connexion with, the great number of 
Indians now present, has created some uneasiness in the 
minds of the inhabitants of this place, especially as the 
Indians are very much dissatisfied with the attempt to 
palm off on to them goods in part for their annuities, when 
money had been promised. Already has a council been 
held among them, and the hint has been dropped that they 
can bring a thousand warriors into the field. The first 
object that met my eye on the low pebbly shore, as we 
approached the island, was the beautiful lodges, and well 
made bark canoes of the Ottawa and Chippewa tribes. 
The whole appearance of their encampment in this wild 
spot is picturesque and imposing. Each family had their 
bark canoe, which was now drawn up on the beach, and 
lay beside their lodge or tent. In this canoe, made of the 
outer rind of the birchen tree, they carry their family, and 
furniture, and all their worldly effects children, dogs, 
fishing-tackle, guns, their tent, cooking utensils, and them 
selves. Their tent, or lodge, consists first 6f five or six 
tapering rods, which are set up so as to form a cone, and 
then around these are placed a coil of matting, made of 
reeds or flaggs, and arranged in such a manner as to form 
a series of concentric or circular covering, each lapping 
upon the other like the scales upon a fish. In the centre 


Illinois and the Lakes. 

of the lodge a fire was kindled, a hole having been left in 
the upper part through which the smoke could pass off. 
Around the fire were spread the blankets and bear-skins, 
which furnished both beds and seats. We entered several 
tents and were kindly received. Almost the first counte 
nance of a white man upon which I looked after reaching 
the shore, was the bright sunny face of our beloved 
brother, the Bishop of Michigan. I never had a more un 
expected or joyful meeting with a Christian brother. We 
spent two or three hours in the most delightful Christian 
intercourse. Bishop McCoskry was on his way to visit 
Green Bay, Milwaukie, and other parts of Wisconsin. 
It was only a few hours, before our steamers were again 
moving forward through the deep green waters, to their 
several places of destination. 






Steamboat travelling upon the western Lakes The waters of 
Huron Saginaw Bay The stormy night The beautiful St. Clair 
Detroit Bishop of Michigan Ypsilanti Ann Arbour Ore Creek 
Bewildered at night in the woods Rescue Meeting of friends 
Log cabin. 

Detroit, July 

WE parted with the friend we met at Mackinaw in the 
night. The two steamers rode off in two opposite direc 
tions. Our course, which from Chicago had been to the 
north, now became southward. There is something ex 
ceedingly novel in steamboat travelling upon the great 
western rivers. But the navigation of the lakes by steam 
presents scenes to the eye, and furnishes material for the 
imagination, far more grand, and striking, and magnificent. 
These lakes are indeed great inland seas. The wind and 
the storm have mighty power over them. But the well- 
directed steamer rides proudly over their agitated surface 
with all her precious cargo of life, and holds steadily on 
her way to the destined port in despite of wind and waves. 
This, however, is not always the case. The wind at times 
blows so fierce and furious that the vessel is driven back 
some fifty or ninety miles in her course. When a storm 



occurs with great and unwonted violence upon these lakes, 
especially upon Huron and Michigan, where there are 
very few safe harbours, the expedient adopted is to keep 
the boat at sea, and let her drive before the gale. We 
saw, but in one single instance, these waters putting on a 
wrathful appearance. During the greater part of our 
voyage, they lay beneath our steamer that swept over them 
in smooth and placid tranquillity. There is something in 
the very appearance of the waters of these lakes to wake 
up poetic conception. They have a sandy or pebbly 
bottom, which appears white as chalk, while every rippling 
wave as well as the whole mass of waters that roll beneath 
you, though so pure and transparent that a silver dollar 
might be distinctly seen at the depth of thirty feet, every 
where assumes the colour of deep emerald green. 

The day after we left Mackinaw, while passing Saginaw 
Bay, every vestige of land faded from our sight, and we 
saw nothing around us but one wide world of waters. As 
the close of the day drew on, the hitherto bright sunny 
heavens became covered with dark menacing clouds. A 
wind sprang up, and the waters of Huron, that had pre 
viously slept with the tranquillity and hushed slumbers 
of an infant, suddenly woke to the fierceness and fury of 
an enraged giant. I plainly saw what an aspect that lake 
could put on in a storm ! 

The sun went down. Neither moon nor stars were 
visible. The curtains of darkness were drawn closely 
around that whole world of waters that roared and dashed 
so fiercely. As I stood upon the upper deck, and looked 
out upon that scene of darkness and wild commotion, and 
heard the roar of the wind, and the dashing of the waves, 
and the hoarse rumbling breath of steam from the escape- 



ment pipe, like the suppressed growl of a lion, that told of 
mighty power to urge onward and to destroy, I felt, in a 
way I have seldom done before, my entire dependence on 
God. As I stood there on the deck, with the wind t s weep 
ing by me, the waves of the troubled lake rolling beneath 
me, and the blackness of darkness around me, interrupted 
and illumined only by the cloud of ignited sparks that 
streamed incessantly forth from the dark funnels of the 
steamer, I felt the force and meaning of the 93d Psalm, 
" The Lord reigneth, he is clothed with majesty. He is 
clothed with strength wherewith he hath girded himself. 
The floods have lifted up, Lord, the floods have lifted 
up their voice : the floods lift up their waves. The Lord 
on high is mightier than the noise of many waters, yea, 
than the mighty waves of the sea. Thy testimonies are 
very sure" There I saw my safety. The testimonies of 
my covenant God were very sure, who had said, " when 
thou passest through the waters I will be with thee." I 
slept soundly that night. In the morning the sun shone 
brightly on us, and all appearance of a storm had gone by. 
In a few hours we were gliding over the surface of the 
beautiful St. Clair, and before evening, Detroit, with its 
neatly built streets, and its noble stream sweeping proudly 
by it, lay before us. It was with a grateful heart that I 
stepped on the shore, remembering the many mercies I 
had enjoyed, and anticipating much pleasure in the eight 
or ten days that I had purposed to send in Michigan. I 
was not disappointed. 

Detroit, is an interesting and beautiful town. The 
parted stream above the city, and the island around which 
it winds, as well as the view of Sandwich on the op 
posite side, with the improved country that stretches 



around it, are all points of interest upon which the eye 
loves to linger. The houses in Detroit are generally com 
posed of wood, which are very neatly painted. Several 
streets running parallel with the river are exceedingly 
beautiful, especially Jefferson Avenue, which is the Broad 
way or Chesnut street of Detroit. The Episcopal Church 
is a very neat gothic building. A second Episcopal 
Church of a larger size is soon to be erected in another 
part of the town. The churches and other public buildings 
in Detroit are certainly highly creditable to the place. 
I met, soon after my arrival at Detroit, the Rev. Mr. 

R , who had come to supply the pulpit of St. Paul's 

during the first Sunday of the Bishop's absence. It has 
always appeared to me that there was great wisdom in the 
views expressed some years since by our present presiding 
bishop that every diocesan should have a parochial 
charge. His judgment, as delivered at the time to which 
I refer, was, that all our dioceses should be small, as they 
were in primitive times ; that the mitre should have no 
worldly splendour or peculiar emoluments connected with 
it ; that each bishop, like the rest of his clergy, should 
have his own parochial charge, to whom he should look 
for his maintenance. One reason assigned for this and 
that is what I particularly refer to was that as one of the 
great duties of a bishop is to preach the gospel, it is infi 
nitely important that his heart should be burning with love 
for souls ; and that he only who had a particular congrega 
tion, the charge of whose souls was upon his hands, would 
ordinarily feel a ceaseless and ever wakeful solicitude for 
dying sinners; and if he did not feel this he would not 
preach with the power and unction that become an am 
bassador of Christ, and the chief pastor of the church. Go 



to that man who, as a minister of the Lord Jesus Christ, 
has been spending his days and nights in prayer and toil 
some labours to promote the spiritual interests of the flock 
committed to his care, and then visit him after he has been 
acting four or five years in the capacity of a professor or 
president of a college, and see if he does not recognize the 
truth of this doctrine, see if he does not sigh for that spirit 
uality and burning love for souls, which once bore him on so 
cheerfully in his labours. However this matter shall be 
viewed, the bishops in many of our dioceses must have 
parochial charges, and this will constitute an important 
portion in the field of their labour. In this department of 
labour the Bishop of Michigan has been pre-eminently 

One could hardly desire a larger measure of popularity, 
either with his parish or in his diocese, than Bishop 
McCoskry enjoys. Every where the highest testimony 
is borne to the loveliness and excellency of his character, 
and the faithfulness and evangelical spirit of his ministry. 
This I heard from all quarters from clergy and laity, 
Episcopalians and Presbyterians. Indeed I think the 
bishop's greatest danger lies in this quarter. May he still 
have grace as he hath hitherto done, amid all these praises 
of men, to count himself as nothing, and to sit as a little 
child at the feet of Jesus. When all our bishops become 
distinguished for their meekness and simplicity, for the 
fervour of their love, their spirit of evangelical piety, and 
their unquenchable zeal to exalt Christ, and rescue dying 
sinners from the iron grasp of the god of this world, we 
shall then indeed see a return of primitive days, and evi 
dences of a truly apostolic church. 

I was delighted to learn from the Bishop of Michigan, 


." ^ " 

that in his contemplated visitation through his diocese, he 
purposed to hold as far as it was practicable, continued 
services for several days in each parish, like the Rhode 
Island convocations, or the Pennsylvania and Virginia 
associations. A clergyman speaking of these anticipated 
services, remarked, " they will be worth to me in such a 
place a whole year's labour." In the place to which he 
referred, the Episcopal Church was just about being or 
ganized, and there, as every where, the great obstacle to 
the establishment of our cjmrch was the impression that 
we were destitute of piety, and that our object was to es 
tablish a particular denomination, and not to save souls. 
Let the missionary go where he will and preach Christ 
crucified, and the people will rally around him. Let him 
only make the impression on the mind of any community 
that he has a message from God to them that he stands 
as between the living and the dead to stay the plague that 
in his view all other things dwindle into nothing, when 
compared with the salvation of their undying souls and 
he will not want hearers, he will not want materials with 
which to build up a church. The people are not opposed 
to an Episcopal form of government they are not opposed 
to our liturgy they are not opposed to our doctrines but 
they are opposed to a dead church. Whether these, their 
impressions in relation to us are well or ill-founded, one 
thing is certain, these impressions do in ten thousand in 
stances exist, and in my view, that minister of our church, 
is the best and soundest churchman, who preaches most 
faithfully the doctrines of the cross, and exemplifies most 
fully the power of Christianity upon his heart by a holy 
life. It is not by controversy and argumentation, but by 
doing their Master's work, by putting forth all their energies 



to bring men to repentance and the foot of the cross, that 
our clergy will remove this impression in relation to our 
want of piety, and make our Zion a praise in all the earth. 
And this, I believe, to a very great extent, the clergy of 
Michigan are striving to do. 

Tuesday, July 25/A. 

I was induced to start this morning for Ypsilanti, by the 

kindness and importunity of the Rev. Mr. R , who 

offered, if I would return with him to his parish, to con 
vey me in his own carriage to the several points I wished 
to visit in the interior of the state. The pledge was fully 
redeemed, and my comfort and pleasure greatly augmented 
by my acceptance of his kind offer. The road for the first 
twenty miles towards Ypsilanti gave us a fine specimen of 
the toil and tardiness of travelling in a new country. At 
one time the formidable slough received us into its cavern 
ous depths, and as we went down, vehicle and horses and 
all, seemed to threaten to swallow us up in its miry em 
brace. Then, as we rose from this perilous depth, our 
carriage went bounding from log to log which lay side by 
side transversely across our path, deeply embedded in 
mud, constituting what is expressively called a corduroy 
road. These were almost the only alternations in our 
path for the first twenty miles. The land, after you leave 
Detroit, is, in almost every direction, low, clayey, and 
wet. It is also heavily timbered, and therefore will not 
be very rapidly settled. The soil of the farms that have 
been cleared up is said to be productive, but principally 
valuable for purposes of grazing. 

The last ten miles of our course, as we urged our way 
on to Ypsilanti, lay through a country of a totally different 



character. I almost felt as though I was again travelling 
through a section of Illinois, though there were more signs 
of cultivation around me than 1 any where saw there. Our 
road now became fine, and we swept along through the 
oak openings, and by the side of successive fields of beau 
tifully tasselled earn, luxuriant -oats, and yellow bending 
wheat, with a speed which soon brought us to the place of 
our destination. Ypsilanti is a neat country village, built 
on Huron river, and contains a population of nearly two 

July 27th. 

We started yesterday morning from Ypsilanti, directing 
our course towards Ann Arbour. We found the country 
through which we passed, rich and beautiful, and bearing 
every where incontestible evidence that it was a soil which 
would remunerate the agriculturalist for every stroke struck 
upon its bosom. 

Jinn Arbour also stands on Huron river, and is a very 
pleasant village containing nearly three thousand inhabi 
tants. There is here an Episcopal Church, which has 
been recently erected, that stands beautifully embosomed 
in a grove of oaks. Immediately adjoining the plot of 
ground on which the church is built, an acre of land which 
cost one thousand dollars, has been purchased by a gentle 
man residing, I believe, in Monroe, who purposes to erect 
upon it a neat and commodious dwelling for the use of the 
rector, and to convey it to the parish corporation as a par 
sonage. To this noble act of munificence he was prompted 
from his love of the Redeemer's cause, and an ardent de 
sire for the success and establishment of our church in 
Michigan. He saw that if there was a house provided for 




the rector, the parish would soon be able to provide the 
means for his support, and that thus the ministrations of 
the Gospel would be permanently secured to this people, 
How many men there are within the bounds of our church, 
who could in like manner, with the utmost ease, bestow a 
few thousand dollars, anS secure to feeble churches the 
certainty of future ministrations of the word, while at the 
same time they would be adding unspeakably to the com 
fort of a body of men who are wearing themselves out in 
the service of the Lord, and by their exhausting labours 
and toil to rescue sinners from death, are preparing them 
selves for a premature grave ! Sure I am, when these 
opulent men, stand at last before God and the Lamb, and 
behold the resplendent crown of glory which Jesus has 
purchased for them by his toil and tears, and sweat and 
blood when they look down into the depths of that hell 
from which he has rescued them, and uplo the heights 
of that heaven to which he is about to exalt them, and 
when that same Jesus points to such an act of munifi 
cence, and says, Inasmuch as ye did, it for the least of 
these my ministers, ye did it unto me, oh then I am sure 
they will not regret the few thousand dollars they have 
given to Christ ! Would to God that many professors 
of religion, who have already wealth enough to ruin 
all their children, and are still holding back their pecu 
niary means and hoarding them up, refusing to conse 
crate any part of them to Christ, would think seriously of 
this, would meditate frequently on the scenes of that 

Our course from Ann Arbour was towards Ore Creek. 
The country through which we passed was somewhat 



undulating, 'and upon the whole a very fine agricultural 
district. No where in the west have I seen better crops. 
The yellow golden wheat, the bearded arid densely stand 
ing barley, the luxuriant oats, and stout corn, as they were 
spread out before the eye in vast fields rapidly succeeding 
each other, and gently waving in the summer breeze, pre 
sented a scene full of interest, and bore indisputable testi 
mony in relation to the excellence and fertility of the soil. 
The point to which we were directing our course was 
North Green Oak. We had already travelled some thirty 
miles, and were now within the limits of this town. Night 
was coming on, and we were yet some four miles from the 
place which I wished to reach. As it would be dark be 
fore our arrival,, and the road was rough, and it was uncer 
tain whether we could all be accommodated for the night 
at the place to which I was directing my course, it was 

decided as a matter of prudence, that Mr. and Mrs. R , 

who had kindly accompanied me in their carriage, should 
remain at the log inn which we had already reached, and 
whose quaint sign was " CALL AND C," while the driver, 
mounting one horse, and myself the other, should go on 
to find the house of my friend. I scarcely need say that 
we had now reached a very new country. It was with 
difficulty that we could muster a saddle in the neighbour 
hood ; but at length one was found, and we set out, bidding 
adieu to our friends for the night. During the first two 
miles our path lay chiefly through the forest : we however 
passed in that distance three houses ; at the last house, 
which was on the borders of a lake, we stopped to enquire 
for the residence of my friend. We were told he lived 
almost two miles on the other side of the lake, that there 



was no road save the track of a wagon, and that as our 
path was a blind one, it was very uncertain whether we 
should find the way. We tried to get some one to go with 
us as our guide, but there was no one at home but women 
and children. It was already dark, our path was through 
the thick woods, and as the last rays, of twilight were 
fast fading away, we had no time to lose. We rode 
rapidly on, and were soon buried in the dense forest. We 
had not proceeded more than a mile before we lost every 
trace of our path, but after riding around awhile among the 
bushes we again struck upon the track, and were able to 
advance a little further. Soon, however, in consequence 
of the increasing darkness, we were again at fault, and 
knew not which way to proceed. We dismounted, and 
having searched for awhile on our hands and knees, suc 
ceeded in discovering the track of a wagon wheel, which 
we followed till it led us into a small oak opening. We 
had gone but a few paces, however, on our way, before the 
path, which had now become more distinct, diverged into 
two branches, the one leading into the dense forest, and 
the other descending into a low marsh. It now became a 
grave question which path we were to take. We were 
far away from any human habitation ; it was doubtful 
whether we could retrace our steps, even if we attempted 
to return ; the night was dark, -sultry, and hot, the deep 
forest was around us, the musquitoes were biting us most 
unmercifully, and we had not provided ourselves with the 
means of striking a light to kindle a fire. The idea of 
spending the night, therefore, unsheltered in the woods, 
under these circumstances, was not altogether agreeable. 
What added to our embarrassment was that if we took 



either path and were able to follow it, we knew not but 
we might be going so much farther from the place where 
we would be. The driver, who was now my only compan 
ion, proposed to lift up his voice and halloo, thinking that 
if any one was within hearing distance, we should receive 
an answer. But though the woods rung to the shout, and 
echoed back his voice, no other response was returned. 
All was still and silent around us as though we were in 
some vast and boundless solitude. At length we deter 
mined to advance as far as we could trace the track of a 
wheel through the marsh, aiid if our path did not lead us 
to the place where we would be, to return and try the 
other. We had not proceeded far amid the high grass be 
fore we ascended a hill, and again entered the woods. 
Our road now became more distinct, but whether it was 
leading us in the right direction we knew not. At length 
my eye caught the glimmering of a taper; at first I thought 
it might be only the phosphorescent light of the fire-fly,, 
swarms of which had been hovering around our path. 
A second look, however, convinced me that it was indeed 
the light of a taper we saw. I cannot describe the emo 
tions that then thronged around my heart. I thought at 
that moment of those words of Cowper, and could in some 
measure understand their meaning, and conceive of the 
feelings of a lost sinner, upon whose benighted path the 
first glimmering of hope fell. 

" I see, or think I see 
A glimmering from afar, 
A beam of day that shines for me, 
To save me from despair." 



We now rode on with speed, and were soon by the side 
of a log cottage. It wasgthe very place which we had been 
seeking. All anxiety was now at an end, and the glad 
welcome so cordially tendered, and the well-known faces 
glowing with looks of kind recognition, made all the care 
and toils of the evening appear as naught. Here was a 
family around me, consisting in all of some ten or twelve 
in number, apparently contented and happy in a log cabin. 
They had a single room below and a sort of garret above 
it. The last time that I saw them was in an elegant three- 
story house, in East Broadway, in New York. I know 
not that they appeared more happy then than they did 
this evening. They expected soon to have a better and 
more commodious domicil, which they were erecting : 
but even with their present dwelling place they were con 
tented. Truly happiness is in the mind, and they whose 
hopes are on God, and who feel that they are in the path 
of duty can be happy in spite of all external circum 

The sun was shining brightly the next morning as we 
retraced our way, and joined our friends at the log tavern. 
Our course was then towards Pontiac, which we reached 
just at the close of the day. We passed through a beauti 
ful country rendered truly picturesque and romantic by a 
chain of little lakes that stretch through this section of the 
state. The banks of these lakes are high and shaded, 
affording the most delightful spots for residence. Their 
waters are pure and limpid, and filled with the finest fish. 
We must have passed during our journey at least twenty 
of these lakes. Pontiac is as beautiful a village for its 
size as I saw in Michigan* 



Friday, July 

On our way to Detroit we stopped to-day at Troy, to 
visit our old friend, the Rev. Mr. H - , who is leading a 
little flock onward in their heavenly journey. 


Tour from the West. 



The Romanists Miracles Indians Captain M The un 
happy sailor Toledo Cleveland Buffalo Niagara Falls. 

Detroit, Monday, July 31. 

THE Roman Church has been supposed to be very 
strong here, but from inquiries that I every where made, 
I am still more confirmed in the belief that the papists at 
the west are making very little impression upon the Pro 
testant population. While they are attempting much, and 
with sinuous effort endeavoring to identify themselves 
with every interest, they in fact as yet, with all their mar 
vellous reports to the Leopold Society, have done but 
very little. That system cannot bear the light. It flour 
ishes best under arbitrary governments, and amid the 
thick darkness of ignorance. The experiment is now 
making in this country, whether it can live and flourish in 
Protestant and republican America without losing its 
essential and most obnoxious features. The remark 
was made to me by a highly intelligent man in Detroit, 
" that the absurdities that were swallowed ten years 
ago by the Catholics there would be hooted at now." 
In illustration of this remark, he went on to v say t 
that about eleven years since he was present at the 
cathedral where the former bishop was preaching, and 



Tour from the West. 

endeavoring to prove the doctrine of transubstantia- 
tion-. Among other evidences to which he referred was 
the following: "A few years previous," said this mitred 
prelate, " in a certain city in Europe, a profane person 
procured one of the consecrated wafers, and with carnal 
curiosity, after leaving the church, brake it in two, when 
instantly a stream of blood issued forth, which ran down 
his clothes, and stained his apparel. He went home in 
great affright, but the stream of blood still flowed, and 
ceased not till in haste he returned to the priest, and con 
fessed his sin ; then the crimson stream was dried up, and 
its stain from his person removed." " This," said the 
bishop, " happened in such a city, and there is such an 
individual now present who lived in that city at the time, 
to whom you can refer for corroboration." 

" It would be the utter ruin of their prospects," said 
my informant, " for a bishop or a Roman Catholic priest 
to make such an assertion at the present time. There is 
too much light now, even among the papists, to listen to 
such a ridiculous story for a moment." 

There is one point of view in which it is infinitely im 
portant that Detroit, and many other towns situated simi 
lar with it, should have pervading it a high sense of 
religious feeling. I speak with reference to the influence 
which the tone of its morals must, and does exert upon 
the many hundreds of Indians that annually visit it. 
These red men of the woods are forming their opinions 
of Christianity from what they see at Detroit, and St. 
Louis, and many of our western towns. They see among 
the white population every thing to lead them to turn away 
with disgust from a religion, professed ta be drawn from 


Tour from the West. 

the Bible. Their depraved natures readily lead them to 
lay hold of the vices that abound among us, and they go 
back to their tribes, carrying the impression that these are 
among the fruits of Christianity. It is painful to see how 
degraded many of them become in their intercourse with 
what is called civilized society. Intemperance is the vice 
which they most readily fall into. Under its baneful in 
fluence they seem to lose all the natural and noble traits 
of their character. I saw in Detroit a stout built Indian, 
playing the merry Andrew through the streets, hawking 
about a lump of ice, as though it were a loaf of sugar, and 
calling for the highest bidder. As he staggered by I could 
not but think how different he appeared from the native 
son. of the forest ; that manly and noble bearing, that 
graceful and elastic step, that grave, serious, and dignified 
look which sat so well upon the native Indian's brow, and 
marked him as one of nature's true noblemen, was gone, 
and he had become a poor, degraded, drunken outcast, 
and was trying to pick up a few pennies by making him 
self a laughing stock to a crowd of idle boys ! What for 
midable barriers do the vices that still remain incorporated 
with Christian communities present, to hinder the pro 
gress and extension of the Redeemer's kingdom ! 

While at Detroit I met with two incidents, which I 
noted down at the time,, and which it may not be impro 
per to record here. The one was an interview with Cap 
tain M , the popular author of several recent novels, 

who is now making the tour of the lakes. The gentleman 
whose kind hospitalities I was sharing, had met with him 
on his way from Buffalo, and had also after his arrival at 
Detroit, called to pay him his respects. It was certainly 



Tour from the West. 

civil in the captain to have returned the call, but it was 
shocking to the feelings of Christian sensibility, that the 
time selected for this reciprocation of civility, was during 

the sacred hours of the Sabbath. Capt. M could not 

attend the place of public worship, for the day was to be 
employed in returning his calls. He appeared to be ad 
dressing himself to this in a business-like way. With a 
friend as his guide, and a carriage to convey him, he was 
proceeding from street to street, carrying with him his 
long list of names, and a bundle of visiting cards. All 
this was done, of course, to show that he appreciated the 
attentions and civilities he had received. When will men 
show as much respect to God and his institutions, as they 
do to the worms of the dust around them ? 

The other incident was of a still more painful charac 
ter. On the same Sunday, just at the close of the day, 
there passed my window, a face that called up the recol 
lection of one whom I supposed had long since been num 
bered with the dead. My first acquaintance with him 
was at the commencement of my ministry. His father's 
residence occupied one of the loveliest spots I had ever 
beheld on the bank of Lake Ontario. The house and 
garden, and court yards, all indicated ease and opulence. 
This young man was then a youth, the only son of his 
father, and cherishing large expectations in relation to fu 
ture wealth. He had been reared up under the eye of a 
fond mother, who " would not let the winds of heaven 
blow too roughly" upon him. His disposition was natu 
rally amiable and vivacious, and there were many to ad 
mire and caress him. But suddenly his prospects were 
darkened. It was discovered that his father's estate was 


Tour from the West. 

covered with mortgages, and his affairs embarrassed be 
yond redemption. One piece of property went after an 
other, till the beautiful family residence was alienated, 
and bankruptcy and poverty seemed now staring them in 
the face. Mr. had reserved a single farm unencum 
bered, which he now promised to give his son. The 
young man, with a truly noble spirit, determined to ac 
commodate himself to the circumstances around him, and 
entered with hearty zeal upon the cultivation of his farm, 
with his own hands. He had just become acquainted 
with some of the more common agricultural operations, 
and began to look forward to humble independence, when 
the astounding fact was disclosed, that this farm too was 
under a heavy mortgage. In the straitened circumstances 
in which Mr. found himself, he had been led to for 
get his promise to his son, and to alienate his last acre of 
land. The young man's spirit seemed broken. He had 
unhappily contracted the habit of moderate drinking. On 
his father's sideboard, while he was yet a boy, there al 
ways stood a decanter of brandy, and every visiter who 
made a morning, afternoon, or evening call, was urged to 
drink. The father and son, to encourage their guests, 
always drank with them. Thus this young man contract 
ed a love for ardent spirits. It was now the season of 
darkness and depression with him. The mother who had 
watched over his childhood, had gone down to the grave. 
The riches in which they once rolled, had taken to them 
selves wings and flown away. The fond hopes he had 
cherished of rising by his own industry, had been crushed. 
Poverty was staring them in the face. This young man 
was without employment. Several years passed by, and 


Tour from the West. 

the prospects of this family did not brighten in a single 
particular. At length the father went abroad. His family 
were left behind to shift for themselves. He never re 
turned. The son became more and more dissipated, till 
in a fit of desperation he went to New York, and embark 
ed on board of a ship as a common sailor. Many a 
father and mother who knew this promising young man, 
and witnessed his career up to this point, when they look 
ed around upon their own infant band, sighed and shook 
their heads, painfully feeling that they could not tell what 

their children would come to. Young went to the 

East Indies, and, it was said, was lost during the voyage. 
I had never heard of him since. But as I sat by the 
window at this time, the countenance and form of one that 


passed by, so strongly reminded me of him, that I sent 
out a young lad to overtake him, and invite him to come 
in. There soon entered one in complete sailor's dress, 
with loose pantaloons, round-about coat, and tarpaulin hat, 
swaggering along, evidently under the influence of intoxi- 
* eating drink. He looked at me for a moment, and then 
uttered my name ! What was my astonishment and 

amazement ! Was this the gifted and talented young , 

whom I had first met in the dwelling of courtly splendor 
from whose father's hands I had received so many expres 
sions of kindness and acts of hospitality over whose 
pleasure-grounds, amid delightful shade and shrubbery, I 
had so often roamed ? Was this that noble, gifted boy, 
in relation to whom such high hopes were formed, and 
who had naturally such generous and kind feelings ? I 
had thought the waves of the deep had long since rolled 
over him ! But no, there he stood, a perfect wreck of 



Tour from the West. 

what he once was. His eye was glassy, and his breath 
fetid and offensive beyond endurance. He seemed to be 
conscious of the degradation he had brought upon himself, 
and by an evident struggle and effort of will, did succeed in 
throwing off the symptoms of present inebriety. I found 
that he had visited every part of the world, and had suf 
fered every thing but death. He had been imprisoned in 
Chili, and cast away on the shores of western Africa. I 
spoke to him about his soul. He seemed much affected, 
and shed tears. After a few moment's pause, he said, " I 
have been a very wicked fellow, but I have never lost the 
early impressions I had in relation to my responsibility to 
God. The little Testament my sister gave me, I have 
kept when stript of every thing else. I have read it when 
the other sailors around me were asleep. I knew they 
did'nt understand my feelings, and they would only laugh 
at me. I have often prayed, but then I would soon be 
come as wicked as ever. I have thought of you, sir, often, 
and of the sermons I used to hear. When I sat naked on 
the burning sand in Africa, I thought of many serious 
things, which I had heard from your lips, and I tried to 
pray. Yes, that was an awful time ! We were cast away 
our vessel was lost three or four of us got ashore and 
were saved. But we were immediately stript of every 
rag of covering, and for three months I wandered over 
the sands of Africa, naked as when I came into the world, 
and living as I could snatch a little fruit here and there. 
I at length found my way to Liberia, and was sent to 
America by the Governor of that colony." 

He then told me that for several years past, he had been 
on the lakes. I asked him if he was happy. He said 


Tour from the West. 

" No, never, except in a storm, when every thing around 
me seems going to destruction. Then I become excited 
and feel a sort of mad happiness." I entreated him to 
bethink himself of his ways, and turn unto the Lord. He 
said he did not think it would do any good ; that he was 
too far gone, and that if he prayed ever so much, or made 
ever so many resolutions, in a few days he was as bad as 
ever. I endeavored to point out where the difficulty lay. 
He went to church with me that evening, and seemed 
solemn and affected. Poor fellow, I know not what will 
be his end ! I fear there are many youths of our land 
going on just in this same path. 

Cleveland, August 2d. 

Yesterday I took leave of Detroit on board the steam 
boat " United States" for this place, which we reached 
this morning. On our way here, we visited Toledo, in 
Ohio, which stands on the Maumee River, about ten miles 
from its mouth. This is a place of some notoriety, but 
although we stopped there several hours, I found very little 
to interest me. There were not a few indications that it 
was a place where iniquity abounded. Though a place 
of considerable size, the institutions of the gospel have 
found very little foothold as yet. I was told, though I 
cannot vouch for the correctness of the account, that some 
time ago, when an effort was about being made to estab 
lish some religious society here, a public meeting was 
called, and they voted that they would have no such thing 
in their town. I hope they have come to a better mind 
before this. 

Just before we entered the Maumee River, we pass- 


Tour from the West. 

ed a light house that had; been erected on [a bare and 
barren bank of sand, of about an acre in extent, which had 
risen up in the midst of the surrounding waters. On this 
barren spot there is a solitary dwelling, the residence, I 
presume, of the keeper of the light-house. There is 
something very striking in this lonely residence, pitched 
in the midst of a wild waste of waters, and forcibly re 
minded me of the state of the Christian in this life, whose 
habitation is often in some desolate place, some lonely 
spot amid a surrounding moral desert, but always where 
he can answer some useful end, can tend upon some light 
house to direct the path of tempest-tost mariners towards 
the haven of rest. 

We also touched in our way to Cleveland at Sandusky 
City and Huron. It was my original intention to stop at 
one of these places, and make an excursion through the 
northern part of Ohio, taking Gambier in my circuit. I 
felt an increased desire to visit that^place, after learning as 
I did in Michigan, the important influence the institution 
there is silently exerting upon the west, but I found it 
necessary to deny myself this pleasure for the want of 
time. From what I heard of Kenyon College, I should 
think that the standard of attainment there was very high, 
and that they had wisely guarded against the custom too 
common in the west of hurrying the student through a 
rapid and superficial course of studies, and conferring upon 
him a degree at a time when he ought to be regarded as a 
sophomore. The course of studies at this institution is 
very thorough, and the faculty able and talented. Kenyon 
College cannot fail to prove a most powerful auxiliary to 
the cause of learning and religion in the west, and its in 
fluence for the interests of the Episcopal Church will be 


Tour from the West. 

more extended than any of us of the present generation can 

With Cleveland I have been decidedly pleased. It is 
principally built on a high table of land, that looks boldly 
off upon the far-stretching and majestic waters.of Erie. It 
has a population of about eight thousand ; its houses are 
generally handsome and well built. It is separated from 
Ohio City by the Cuyahoga river, a stream into which the 
steamboats run up, which stop at Cleveland. Ohio City 
is a pleasant town, having between two and three thousand 
inhabitants. They are here erecting a fine stone edifice 
for an Episcopal Church. This place appears to bear the 
same relation to Cleveland that Brooklyn does to New 
York. Unhappily there is no small jealousy between the 
two places, which it is hoped the experience of a few 
years will cure. Some of the streets in the eastern part 
of Cleveland, looking off upon the lake, are beautiful be 
yond the power of description. 

Niagara Falls, August 3d. 

In passing from Cleveland to Buffalo over Erie's green 
waters, we touched at several interesting points, but I omit 
any description of them or of Buffalo, which has grown up 
into a large and beautiful city. I have spent the day most 
delightfully here, silently musing on these vast waters that 
leap with giant stride over this mighty precipice of rock. 
I had thought that these falls, when I first gazed upon them 
from Table Rock, some four years since, possessed all the 
conceivable elements of sublimity, but I never understood 
their full grandeur and majesty till I looked at them to-day, 
and remembered that the water of all those lakes upon 
which I had travelled more than a thousand miles, was 


Tour from the West. 

pouring in one gathered column over that precipice ! 
Then, immediately, I felt that the tremendous roar, that 
rose deafening around me, was the voice of God ! I saw 
that it was His hand that had gathered those waters, and 
poured them with such resistless force over that vast pre 
cipice, and the thought then flashed upon my mind, " How 
will he speak to impenitent sinners when he riseth up to 
judgment? How will they escape from his mighty hand 
when he poureth out his fury like fire ?" 

Just then a rainbow met my eye that lay beautifully 
pencilled on the foaming flood below. I remembered it 
was the bow of promise ; and new emotions of gratitude 
were waked up in my heart, when, at the very moment I 
was surrounded with such demonstrations of almighty 
power, and such vivid proof that God could with the 
breath of his mouth hurl the guilty down to bottomless 
perdition, I was reminded by the bow that lay on the 
bosom of the foaming gulf, that through the mercy of God 
in Christ there was a way for poor sinners to escape ! Oh 
that they might be prevailed upon to lay hold of the hope 
set before them, and not rush madly on to the precipice of 
eternal death ! 


Western New York. 



Niagara Falls Rochester Canandaigua Geneva Seneca Lake 
The moonlit heavens Departed friends The clergyman's son 
The candidate for the ministry A beloved brother My departed 
mother Geneva College The Sabbath. 

Geneva, Aug. 9th, 

EVERY man who has visited Niagara Falls, that scene 
of enchantment, remembers with what difficulty he tore 
himself from the spot. To every mind that has any sen 
sibility any relish for the grand and sublime, every island 
and grove, every stone and tree, every green bank and 
shaded nook around that mighty cataract, is a charmed 
spot. Go to what point you may, to take your last look 
at the falls, whether it be on the British or American side 
whether you stand on Table Rock or Goat Island 
whether you look out from the top of the observatory that 
has been reared with daring intrepidity on the edge of the 
foaming current and the brow of the Falls, or look up 
from the foot of the vast cataract, and see a world of waters 
plunging in one animated, leaping mass from the heights 
above, you will feel as you gaze there to bestow your last 
lingering look, that the hand of some giant power has laid 


Western New York. 

a spell upon all the scene around you, and chained you to 
the spot. You may tear yourself from this scene, but it 
is with the feeling with which you separate yourself from, 
and bid adieu to the loved one of your heart. Your eye 
and your thoughts oft turn back to catch another glimpse 
of that which you fear is fading from your view for ever. 
Have you not sometimes in your journeyings, taken your 
leave with great reluctance from some dear family circle, 
who gathered around you at the door, and followed you 
while you could yet see them with every demonstration of 
kindness and interest ? At length a turn in the road shut 
them from your view, and you went on your way musing 
on the past, and thinking perhaps you would never meet 
them more till you met them with the ransomed on high. 
While you moved on indulging in a pensive train of reflec 
tion, your path took another turn, and brought the mansion 
you left again to view, and showed you your friends still 
watching your course, whose waving hands and handker 
chiefs testified that their hearts were with you, though 
their voices could no longer reach your ear. It was some 
what so with us, when on Friday morning the fourth of 
August , we started in the railroad cars from the Falls, 
bound to Lockport. The course of the railroad for some 
distance lies along on the bank of Niagara river, every now 
and then revealing to us the swift and green waters of the 
stream as it leaps along its deep-worn channel, some 
hundred feet below. We had proceeded thus a mile or 
two, when suddenly by a turn of the river, the entire view 
of the Falls was again brought before us. The eye was 
now able to take in the whole scene at a single glance, and 
no view of Niagara appeared more impressive than this. 
You could distictly trace the rapids above the Falls, see 


Western New York. 

the foaming current urging its way on like the angry bil 
lows of the ocean, till it reached the dreadful leap, and then 
gracefully and majestically sliding off from the edge of the 
precipice to the vast abyss below in one beautiful and vast 
column of emerald green. Below you saw, as in one great 
cauldron, the whole river boiling up in white and milky 
appearance, and then winding off in its deep channel, till 
at length it again assumed its native hue of green. The 
islands and groves, and wild scenery that environ this 
wonder of the woild, were all gathered in one rich group 
distinctly before the eye. Who can look on such a scene 
and not remember its Creator ? What must be the glories 
which God will reveal to his ransomed and sanctified 
people in the celestial world, when he allows to linger here 
amid the defilements and desolations of sin such traces of 
surpassing beauty and loveliness ! 

We took Rochester in our way, and thence directed our 
course by stage to Canandaigua, which, with its tasteful 
court-yards, and beautiful houses, and elegantly shaded 
streets, reminds one of a beauteous, gemmed, and highly 
adorned bride that has retired from the festal scene, and 
is seeking repose in some rural bower. The country 
through which we rode from Rochester to Geneva is in a 
high state of cultivation, and the rich fields of waving grain 
around one makes him feel at every step that he is passing 
through the garden of America. We reached Geneva in 
the early part of the afternoon. There is not a lovelier 
spot beneath the far-expanded sky for the site of a village 
than the banks of the Seneca. Though the business part 
of the village is situated principally on the northwest corner 
of the lake, by far the most beautiful part of the town 
stretches along on the western bank which rises some 


Western New York. 

fifty or hundred feet above the quiet waters of this beautiful 
lake. Here a street runs along parallel with the lake, and 
the most delightful residences are built up on either side. 
Almost every dwelling has before it a fine court-yard filled 
with shrubbery and ornamented with flowers. And those 
built on the brow of the lake have gardens terraced down 
to the water's edge. 

The lake is here some three miles wide, stretching off 
forty miles to the south, and presenting on the opposite 
side a beautiful and finely-cultivated country. On this 
street, looking off upon this lovely sheet of water, stands 
the college. As we recede to the west the land rises by 
gentle and successive undulations for a mile or two, fur 
nishing on the summit of these successive ridges the most 
delightful locations for residences, from some of which you 
have brought within the ken of your eye the whole village 
and lake, and country beyond. I have already partially 
described the street that runs along on the western bank of 
the lake, which is adorned and shaded with trees, and on 
which the college and principal churches are built. Far 
ther west and running parallel with this is another street 
inferior in beauty, but peculiarly attractive to me, as at its 
northern extremity is situated the old burying ground, 
where sleeps the dust of many, many dear friends. 

Memory loves to go back to the past. I well recollect 
a summer evening of 1820. The day had declined, and 
the curtains of night were drawn around the green earth. 
While twilight still lingered in the west, gently fading into 
darkness, the moon rose in full orbed splendour. I was 
returning^with a friend from a walk. Our course lay along 
on the margin of the lake. Never did I see a sweeter or 
lovelier scene, than was exhibited on the bosom of that 


Western New York. 

lake, lit up with a flood of splendour streaming down from 
the bright orb of night. That beautifully-expanded sheet 
of water lay in unruffled smoothness. The lake seemed 
like a sea of glass. If a ripple run over that transparent 
surface, it was so gentle, that it seemed only the rocking 
of the moon-beams to sleep that played there. The air 
was bland and balmy, and full of the fragrance which the 
verdant and flowery earth gave forth. But with myself 
and my friend, life then looked thus bright and fresh and 
fair. Our walk terminated at the threshhold of my own 
paternal mansion. We went in and sat down. Three 
other persons joined us. We looked out upon the moon 
light scene, and talked of future days. There was not 
one sad or clouded brow there. I can remember every 
countenance in that happy group as though it were but 
yesterday night. But now of the five that sat there and 
enjoyed the delightful converse of that sweet night, I alone 
am the only survivor. All the rest have for these nine 
years slept within the precincts of the burial-ground. 

One of this little group was the friend of my childhood. 
His father was the parish priest, from whose lips my in 
fant ear first drank in the sounds of a preached gospel. 
I well recollect with what a throbbing heart 1 first drew 
near the chancel in an old time-stained church in New 
England, with a band of children like myself to rehearse 
to this holy man my catechism. I well recollect the 
solemn tones of his voice, and the benignant look with 
which he pronounced a blessing on our young heads. I 
can never forget the many kind, cordial welcomes I have 
received under the roof of the pastor of my childhood. 
The young man to whom I have referred was his eldest 
son. We were now far from the scene where had past 


Western New York. 

the sports and frolics of childhood. The good hand of the 
Lord had shown me thatthere was something better than 
the fading vanities of this empty world to occupy and ab 
sorb the affections of an immortal being. Often had I tried 
to lead my young friend to see things as I saw them. 
When absent I had written to him ; but though his affec 
tion for me seemed unchanged, he always evaded any 
coming to the point, in relation to his own personal salva 
tion. Though amiable and moral, he was naturally gay 
and vivacious, and the world had still an unbroken hold 
upon his affections. On the evening to which I have re 
ferred, he seemed more than ordinarily pensive. In less 
than a year, though apparently full of vigour and health, 
he was suddenly laid upon a sick bed. The last night of 
his life I was with him, and did not leave his room till the 
dawn of morning. At midnight when all was still, he 
called me close to his bed-side, and thanked me for my 
letters that I had formerly written to him, and all my 
solemn admonitions, and assured me that they had not 
been forgotten, but had made very deep impressions upon 
his mind. And then he continued " I wish to be saved, 
I wish to give my heart up to God, I wish to be pardoned, 
and have a hope in Christ. Oh that I had sought the 
Lord in health, and now were at peace with him." Then 
he fervently called on God for mercy. His mind soon 
began to wander. The next morning he was an un- 
breathing corpse. 

Another of this company, was one who had been asso 
ciated with me in study. The home of his childhood was 
amid the rugged hills of New England. He had contended 
with a long train of difficulties to push his way onward to 
he threshold of the sacred ministry. The last obstacles 


Western New York. 

now seemed giving away. In about a year he would go 
forth as the accredited ambassador of the King of kings. 
Animated with this thought, and the brightening prospect 
around him, his mind on that evening seemed winged with 
hope, and his conversation was full of life and sprightliness. 
Just about a year had gone. The day for his ordination 
was appointed. His friends were anxiously waiting to 
see him put the sacred armour on. But the hand of 
disease suddenly seized him, and on the very day he was 
to have been ordained, he. died, and I trust went up to 
the heavenly court to be made there a " priest unto 

A third in this group, was a beloved brother, who had 
been to me not only a brother, but my spiritual father. It 
was his voice that first directed my feet to the cross of 
Christ ; and it was from his hands that I first received the 
consecrated memorials of a Saviour's dying love. The 
cares and toils and anxieties of his spiritual flock were 
even then wearing away his life. A few years passed by, 
and my friend my counsellor my brother, was borne to 
that same burial*ground, where his voice had been so often 
heard, committing " Earth to earth, ashes to ashes, dust to 
dust." There are those that remember the pastor's coun 
sel, who still go to that grave where his ashes sleep, and 
water it with their tears. 

The last in that group which sat and conversed so de 
lightfully together on the evening to which I have adverted, 
was one who bore to me a dearer and more sacred relation 
than any or all of these. Can I ever forget the kindliness 
of that eye that beamed with such sweet affection on me ? 
Can I ever forget the soft velvet pressure of that hand, 
which when I was sick was laid so gently on my burning* 


Western New York. 

feverish brow ? Can I ever forget that cradle hymn, that 
calmed my infant fears, and hushed all my troubles to re 
pose ? Can I ever forget the tones of that sweet voice that 
first breathed into my infant ear the name of Jesus ? Can 
I ever forget the appearance of that dear form, the heaven- 
liness of that look, or even the seat in which she sat, when 
I was first taught to kneel down by her side, and say 
" Our Father who art in heaven?" No ! Every other 
image may fade from my memory, but my mother's will 
be there for ever ! 

On that evening to which I have referred, no one ap 
peared more cheerful or happy, and no circumstance added 
more enjoyment to that hour than the presence and conver 
sation of my dear and beloved mother. But a few years 
only had elapsed, and the charm of our home was gone ! 
Well do I recollect that night when I was called from my 
bed, and saw the last breath trembling on her quivering 
lips. Well do I recollect how that brother of whom I 
have just spoken, as we stood silent around that bed from 
which a departing saint was about to go up to glory, took 
her dying hand, and as the last pang was ended, said in 
the deep solemn stillness that pervaded the weeping group, 
" The bitterness of death is passed, and she is at rest .'" 
Her grave is in the burying ground. Of all that company 
that sat and talked and looked out on that moonlight scene 
I only am left. Oh what reason have I to praise the 
Lord ! What reason to die daily ! 

The commencement of Geneva College had occurred a 
few days previous to my arrival. This institution has 
been struggling for many years with a series of difficulties, 
most of which are now happily overcome. The corpora 
tion have recently received an endowment that will enable 



Western New York. 

them to compete with any kindred institutions in the coun 
try. They have an able and well-organized faculty, at the 
head of which is President Hale, a man not only of varied 
and large acquirements, but of most bland manners and 
devoted piety. There is an influence now gathered around 
this institution that must very soon elevate it to a high 
rank among the institutions of our country. It giv^s fair 
promise at present of being what one of its originators 
toiled and prayed and spent many anxious days and nights 
to make it. Though he has gone to his rest and though 
he saw gathering over it during his life nothing but clouds 
and darkness, he will reap the fruits of his labours in 

I spent a Sunday here that strikingly reminded me of 
former days. The congregation were already gathered. 
I went in, and sat in the same pew I used to occupy long 
before I assumed the responsibilities of the sacred office. 
The place itself was unaltered, but the worshippers what 
a change had come over them ! Here and there was a 
well-known countenance, but how many pews were occu 
pied with those who were strangers to me ! And then, 
where was that venerable father that promising young 
jurist that physician rising rapidly to eminence that 
blooming, beautiful young bride, that drew all eyes 
towards her ? Where was that mother in Israel that 
much respected and hoary headed man, whose voice used 
to give such deep emphasis to the responses ? Where 
were a hundred others, whose images came up fast before 
me ? Ah ! the grave, the grave had swallowed them up ! 
And where too was the pastor whose voice used to echo 
through this temple ? He too was gone ! That 
voice which had so often called upon sinners to turn 


Western New York. 

and flee to calvary, and urged the heaven-bound pilgrim 
onward towards the goal, was now hushed in death ! On 
a tablet near the pulpit I saw his name inscribed, but I be 
lieve it was written in deeper and more durable characters 
upon the hearts of some who worshipped with me that 

The day was bright and sunny. There seemed that 
morning to rest on the mind of the assembled worshippers 
a sweet, holy calm, the emblem of that rest which re- 
maineth for the people of God." The deep, solemn tones 
of the service, came that morning with unwonted power on 
my ear. Every sentence of the liturgy, fraught as it is 
with the richest vein of evangelical piety, seemed particu 
larly on that occasion to give wings to my devotion, and 
to bear my soul upward to the very courts of the most high 
God. It was a sacramental season. The sermon was 
appropriate, faithful, solemn, and affecting. The commu 
nion service began. The bread was broken and the wine 
poured out. As I went forward to kneel at that altar, I 
could not but call to remembrance my feelings eighteen 
years before, when I first bowed there to vow a vow unto 
God, and receive a token of the Saviour's dying love. 
The thoughts and feelings of that hour I will not presume 
to obtrude upon you. There was a rush of sensibilities 
and recollections that quite overcame me for the moment. 


A jaunt from Philadelphia to Albany. 



A bleak, dreary morning Bishop of Illinois- Sail up the Delaware 
New York Bay Sail up the Hudson Unexpected meeting Col 
lege friend Story of his afflictions Poor African servant. 

THE sketches contained in the three following chapters 
were written in 1838. 

F airfield, N. Y., Sep. 21, 1838. 

After having passed a day or two in the country, or 
gone along some two or three hundred miles by stages, 
steamboats, and rail-road ears, in looking back upon the 
scenes through which you have passed, the company you 
have met, and the different individuals with which you 
have been brought in contact, one feels almost astonished 
to reflect how many touching incidents of human woe have 
been brought to his notice during this short period. Sor 
row and sadness seem to lie every where on the surface of 
society. You cannot enter a steamboat, or walk through 
the streets of a large town, or mingle at all in the circles of 
the living, without meeting with something to remind you, 
and that most painfully, "that man is born to trouble.'' 
Does not this show that ours is a world full of disorder and 
sin ? Does it not show that some great moral convulsion has 


A jaunt from Philadelphia to Albany. 

occurred here, which has upturned the very foundations 
upon which human nature was originally built? Surely a 
God of order and of benevolence would never have created 
such a world as ours now is ! Surely this world is not now 
what it was when upon its original creation, " the morning 
stars sang together, and the sons of God shouted aloud for 
joy!" I do not see how any one can prosecute an inves 
tigation upon the subject of moral philosophy, and not 
come to the conclusion that the Bible is the only book in 
the world that gives any satisfactory account of the origin 
and history of man. 

It was a bleak and dreary morning upon which we left 
Philadelphia. The wind blew fiercely, and the waters of the 
Delaware seemed stirred to the very bottom as we entered 
the steamboat. Notwithstanding the earliness of the hour, 
and the roughness of the weather, a great crowd was 
rushing on board. Among the number was the Bishop of 
Illinois. The last time I had seen him to have any con 
tinued conversation with him, was more than a year since, 
near the banks of the Mississippi, in the extreme north 
west corner of his extensive diocese. I was sorry to find 
on the present occasion, that the bishop seemed a good 
deal depressed in reference to the prospects of the Church 
in his diocese, though still looking to the Lord and trusting 
in his wise government. I could in some measure enter 
into his feelings, as I had travelled over the vast field of 
destitution in the midst of which he is placed. Being en 
trusted with the interests of the Church in the vast and 
powerful state of Illinois, without funds, without a salary 
adequate to his own support, with only here and there a 
single labourer to co-operate with him, how can he carry 
out the designs of his office ? Though a thousand fair 


A jaunt from Philadelphia to Albany. 

fields lie blooming before him, all promising a rich and 
luxuriant harvest, how, with his present means, can he 
take possession of them ? He wants a vast increase of 
missionary men, and pecuniary means to sustain them. 
The discouragements around him are innumerable. What 
can be done for the West ? What can be done for Illinois ? 
I believe if three or four of our eastern clergy, who have 
acquired character and standing in the Church, were to go 
into each of the western dioceses, and there co-operate to 
gether, determined to stand by the Church, to sink or swim 
with it, determined never to leave the ground till the whole 
western wild should blossom as the rose, this would do 
more for the cause of religion than any other measures that 
could be adopted. Are .there not in the length and breadth 
of our Church a dozen men of this character, who will 
make this sacrifice for Christ and for undying souls ? If 
we had the spirit, and the faith, and the self-sacrifice of 
Paul, is it not probable that we should see, if not in divine 
visions, yet in many of our waking hours, and perhaps in 
the dreams of the night, imploring thousands standing on 
the banks of the Wabash, the Illinois, and the Mississippi, 
stretching forth their hands and saying, " Come over and 
help m r 

Our sail up the Delaware was characterized with nothing 
new or unusual. The cars took us on at their usual rate. 
And in due time we were safely landed at the battery in 
New York. At five o'clock, P. M., we found ourselves 
again embarked on board one of the North river steamers. 
As we pushed out from the wharf and gazed over the beau 
tiful bay that stretched around us, studded with islands and 
whitened with a hundred sails, the thought most forcibly 
pressed itself upon my mind, that Americans need not be- 



A jaunt from Philadelphia to Albany. 

ashamed to speak of New York bay, even in connection 
with the bay of Naples, though the latter in the bold 
shores of Capri, the towering summit of Vesuvius, and the 
vast, extended, circling sweep of its waters has, doubtless, 
features of sublimity, which the former cannot claim. 
As we passed the palisades, and began to approach the 
mountain scenery of the highlands, I was more than ever 
impressed with an idea which I embraced while in Europe, 
that, take it all in all, there is no river scenery in the world 
comparable with that of our own Hudson. 

While I stood upon the deck of our steamboat, gazing 
upon the precipitous and rugged sides of the palisades 
that rise like a wall of masonry above the noble Hudson, 
a gentleman approached me and said, " I ought to know 
you ; I think we were class-mates in college. My name 
is W ." 

When I first looked at the speaker, the remembrance 
of him as an old college acquaintance, was like the faded 
and indistinct recollections of a forgotten dream. But as 
one and another particular was mentioned, the picture of the 
past gathered fresh brightness, and stood before my mind's 
eye with all the vividness of an occurrence of yesterday. 
More than fifteen years had elapsed since we bid adieu to 
our Alma mater and to each other. Our class at the time 
we graduated, consisted of about eighty ; my acquaintance 
with W. during our college course was slight, and as his 
residence was in one of the remote southern states, I had 
never met with him before since the day of our gradua 
tion. We, however, immediately upon this unexpected 
meeting, felt our hearts strongly drawn towards each other, 
by the power of old associations. We sat down and 


A jaunt from Philadelphia to Albany. 

talked over college scenes, till the shades of evening gath 
ered around us. I was astonished to find how many of 
our class were already numbered with the dead : and how 
many among the most gifted and talented of our old asso 
ciates had fallen victims to intemperance. During the 
fifteen years since we last met, we ourselves had passed 
through a variety of scenes, and had each tasted of the cup 
of sorrow. I became deeply interested in my friend's 
history, and though the dark summits and lofty mountain 
peaks of the highlands were around and above us, and at 
this time rendered still more wild and romantic by the 
partial darkness in which they were enwrapped, I had no 
eye nor ear for any thing but the touching tale to which I 
listened. The outlines of the story were as follows : 

While young W. was still in college, he had formed an 
acquaintance with Mr. Y , who then resided in a neigh 
bouring city, and filled one of the highest offices in the 
state. Mr. Y's. family, for several generations back, had 
been regarded among the most respectable in the land. 
Young W. was often invited to share the hospitalities of 
his house, and soon became a frequent visiter there. 
There were in this family three young ladies, daughters of 
Mr. Y., all of them accomplished and interesting. Jane, 
the youngest, was particularly beautiful and attractive. 
To her W. felt his heart drawn with resistless power. 
Himself belonging to a distinguished and wealthy family 
in Georgia, he did not hesitate to aspire to the hand of 
the lovely Jane Y. His suit was successful. After hav 
ing passed through a course of law studies, the happy hour 
arrived in which he was permitted to stand up and claim 
Jane as his wedded bride. The evening of the celebra- 



A jaunt from Philadelphia to Albany. 

lion of their nuptials, witnessed a scene of most brilliant 
festivity in the old family mansion of Mr. Y. All the 
gaiety, and splendour, and luxury which are found in the 
brightest paths and most resplendent saloons of fashion, 
were that night there. When the next morning dawned, 
and the family gathered around the table for breakfast, 
there was an occasional cloud of gloom that every now 
and then came over the mother's countenance : for that 
day she was to part with her daughter ! Jane was now 
the wife of a planter in Georgia, and upon that distant 
plantation was to be her future home. Her young and 
joyous heart, though for a moment depressed, as she gave 
the parting kiss to each of the family, soon recovered its 
wonted buoyancy. Her presence flung an immediate 
sunshine around the habitation to which she was conduct 
ed, and her happy husband thought again and again that 
he had never before known half her worth. Years passed 
on, and Jane had now become the mother of two beautiful 
children. This couple were as happy as this world could 
make them. They had health and wealth, ease, family 
distinction, and promising children, and yet they lacked 
one thing absolutely essential to their happiness. They 
were strangers to the transforming power of divine grace. 
Living remote from any place of divine worship, they sel 
dom visited the house of God, and were becoming each 
year more indifferent to divine things. 

At length the following incident awakened Mrs. W 

to a consideration of the things of eternity. There was a 
female slave on the plantation advanced in years, who was 

very ill. Mrs. W had an amiable and tender heart, 

and never failed to do all in her power to render the situa- 


. ! . 

A jaunt from Philadelphia to Albany. 

tion of their slaves comfortable. She visited them in sick 
ness and did every thing to minister to their wants and to 
alleviate their sufferings. Hearing of the illness of old jy ' 
Peggy she hastened to the cabin to see what she could do 
to relieve her. As she stood on the threshold of the door, 
just ready to enter, she heard the voice of this old negro 
woman lifted up in prayer. She immediately stopped, 
feeling that it would be wrong to interrupt any human 
creature while communing with God. The words which 
this old female slave uttered were very simple, but full of 

pious sentiment. As Mrs. W listened she heard her 

say, "Oh Lord God, me am a poor sinner, but massa 
Christ died for sinners, therefore, good Lord, do have 
mercy upon me, poor dying cretur, for Jesus' sake. My 
sins many, oh do blot them all out make me, poor slave, 
holy make me fit to enter heaven and oh bring massa 
and missa and the little babies there. Save us all for 

Jesus' sake." As Mrs. W listened to these simple 

words, her heart was touched the tear fell upon her 
cheek. She entered the cabin, and found old Peggy 
stretched on a couch, and evidently struck with death. In 
haste and with agitation she asked what she could do for her. 
The old servant replied, " Nothing, nothing I am now 

going home." As Mrs. W appeared distressed and 

anxious to do something for her, Peggy said, " Dear 
missa, don't be troubled about me you have always been 
good to we poor blacks. The Lord bless you. You can 
do no more for me, I shall be gone soon." But, said Mrs. 

W , " Are you not afraid to die ?" Upon this inquiry, 

the old woman raised herself up, and clasping her hands, 
looked towards heaven and said in the most plaintive, 
touching tone, " Oh Jesus, should me be afraid to come to 


A jaunt from Philadelphia to Albany. 

thee ?" And then her eye sparkling with joy, as she turned 

to Mrs. W , she said, " Me love Jesus me give him 

my heart ; Jesus knows me, and therefore me no fear to 
go through the dark valley to him : for he says in the 
good book, * / know my sheep and they follow me, and 
I give unto them eternal life, and they shall never 
perish, neither shall any pluck them out of my hand." 1 J! 
The old woman was exhausted by this effort and fell back 
upon the bed with her eyes closed, apparently dying. 
One or two coloured persons who were in the room, now 
gathered around the bed, expecting every moment to see 
her breathe her last. After ten or fifteen minutes she again 
opened her eyes, and fixing an intense look upon Mrs. 

W- , said, " Dear missa, do you not love Jesus ?" 

* * * * She would have said more, but her tongue 
was already palsied in death -the muscles around her 
mouth quivered her eye seemed glazed her breath was 
gone : her soul was in eternity ! 

Mrs. W went home serious and thoughtful. She 

retired to her chamber and took down her long neglected 
Bible. She perused the sacred page for a long time. She 
knelt down and tried to pray. She found her heart was 
cold, and that there was no love to Jesus there. She 
called upon God for mercy. The deep fountains of sen 
sibility in her heart were at length broken up, and she 
wept in agony of spirit over her impenitence and hardness 
of heart. When her husband came in, he found her 
bathed in tears and instantly demanded the cause. She 
told him of Peggy's death, and of the solemn impression 
made upon her mind, adding, " I have a presentiment that 
I shall not live long, and I am determined no longer to 
neglect the salvation of my soul." "Oh," said W , 


A jaunt from Philadelphia to Albany. 

who at that time was rather inclined to be skeptical, " do 
not indulge in such gloomy and nervous feelings or think 
about such superstitious matters." 

Mrs. W , however, remained steadfast to her pur 
pose. From this time she daily read the sacred Scriptures, 
and sought divine illumination at the mercy-seat. The 
Methodist ministers who had officiated on the plantation 
among the slaves, and by whose instruction old Peggy 
had been taught the way to heaven, were invited to visit 

Mr. W 's house. The voice of prayer was now 

frequently heard in that dwelling. Mrs. W had al 
ready become a decided Christian, and was leading her 
husband on in the same path, when she was suddenly at 
tacked with a violent fever. From the very commence 
ment she felt that this sickness would be unto death. 
When it was evident that she was rapidly sinking and 
could survive but a few hours, she begged her husband to 
sit down at her bed-side and the children to stand by their 
father, and then calmly addressed him in substance as fol 
lows : " Charles, I told you a year ago I had a strong pre 
sentiment that I should not live long. Ever since that 
time I have been looking forward to this hour. I have a 
hope in Jesus, which is * as an anchor to my soul.' 
Though I love you and these dear children above all 
earthly things, I am willing to leave you all in the hands 
of God and to depart and be with Christ which is far 
better. But, dear husband, will you not join me in yonder 
heaven? Will you not bring these dear, precious ones 
with you there ? Oh ! then seek the salvation of your 
soul in the atoning blood of Christ, and train up these 
children in the nurture and admonition of the Lord." 
These were her last dying words. The green grass has 



A jaunt from Philadelphia to Albany. 

for more that two years waved over her grave. Before 
her death the decease of her father had thrown a vast in 
crease of wealth into her husband's hands. But that be 
reaved husband with all his vast wealth, as he looks upon 
his motherless children, and upon Jane's grass-covered 
grave, feels that this world is all an empty show, that we 
look for happiness in vain beneath the skies. 

This was the outline of W 's story. The hour had 

already become late before our conversation drew to a 
close. We each sought our respective berths in the cabin 
below. When we awoke in the morning, we found our 
selves in the immediate vicinity of Albany. We were 
soon on shore moving up State street. * * * * * 


The Irish Couple. 



Albany The Irish mother Incidents that occured five years ago 
The disappointed emigrants The Little Falls Rural retirement. 

Fairfield, N. Y. t Sept. 22. 

OUR stopping place in Albany was at CONGRESS HALL, 
which we reached some time before the sun sent his re 
splendent beams abroad : the morning was damp and hazy, 
and upon the whole every thing looked dull and gloomy 
around us. We were, however, occupying one of the 
most delightful positions in the place our inn being 
located on one corner of the beautiful enclosure in front of 
the capitol or state-house, whence we could overlook al 
most the entire city. As I sat down by a window which 
commanded a view of the state-house park, or square, my 
travelling companion directed my attention to a female, 
who with tattered vestments and feeble steps, was pacing 
backwards and forwards one of the gravelled walks in the 
verdant enclosure before us. She was carrying in her 
arms a sickly looking infant, some nine or ten months old, 
and the whole appearance both of the mother and child, 
seemed to indicate that they were houseless wanderers, and 


The Irish Couple. 

had passed the night without a shelter. As in her con 
tinued walks up and down the gravelled avenue, she 
occasionally approached near the window where we sat, 
I saw that she was about middle aged, and had evi 
dently once had a fine and expressive countenance, 
though the traces of sorrow and grief were now deeply 
worn there. 

We were called to our breakfast : as soon as it was dis 
patched we hurried away from our hotel to the grand rail 
road depot, whence we were to take our departure west 
ward. On our way we passed directly by the gravelled 
walk, where we had seen the poor woman, who had so 
much excited our sympathy. She now sat on the ground, 
her infant sleeping in her lap, and herself apparently ab 
sorbed in melancholy. She was evidently of Irish extrac 
tion, and though her appearance bore evidence of extreme 
poverty, there were no indications about her of intemper 
ance. I could not but think what a tale of sorrow, of dis 
appointed hopes, and perhaps of cruelly blighted inno 
cence, would that Irish mother's history, if recorded, un 
fold. My thoughts immediately went back to that beautiful 
Emerald Isle, over whose green fields I had so recently 
roamed. Though I had seen some misery there, I had 
seen much happiness and contentment. I verily believe 
there is often to be found more real happiness in the mud 
cottage than in the gilded palace. The Irish have strong 
and generous feelings, and strong family affection. As I 
saw that poor Irish mother sitting there upon the ground, 
so forlorn and desolate, my imagination pictured to me her 
early home, where she passed her childhood beneath the 
glad eye of her affectionate parents. They saw her grow 
up, the pride of their heart, and thought that she would be 


The Irish Couple. 

the solace of their declining years. But the tempter came 
she was lured from her home she passed over the deep 
waters, and found herself in a foreign land. Her base 
husband soon showed himself the degraded victim of in 
temperance, and after a few years deserted her leaving 
her houseless, homeless, in poverty, and broken-hearted 
sorrow. Perhaps in point of fact there were no lines in the 
history of that poor Irish mother in correspondence with 
this picture, but I believe, if the real history of many an 
emigrant from that green isle were known, we should feel 
more kindly to that people, and the heart and hand of 
Christian charity would be more frequently open to relieve 
the destitute among them. I know not where we shall 
find on earth such noble elements of character as in the 
Irish race. I confess I have been charmed and filled with 
admiration with some specimens I have met of Irish Chris 
tian gentlemen. I cannot turn my face away from any 
poor Irishman who asks alms at my door, unless he be 
manifestly the victim of intemperance, and begs to procure 
the means of indulgence in this sin. It is true we are 
sometimes liable to be deceived. Clothes and money are 
sometimes procured under false pretexts. But even] then 
they may minister to the comfort of the destitute, and if 
we have given for Christ's sake, we shall not lose our 

I do not mean by these remarks to intimate that I regard 
it as a Christian duty to give to all without discrimination 
who ask alms at our hands but simply to say, that I think 
it better to give to twenty undeserving objects than to turn 
our face away from one who is Christ's representative 
here on earth. (Mat. xxv. 35 46.) Neither do I mean 
to affirm, that there is not danger of being deceived by 


The Irish Couple. 

some who make large demands upon us for assistance. 
In such cases we should undoubtedly proceed with great 
caution : and even then, after all, we may be beguiled. A 
case in point now occurs to me. 

While residing in New England, on a dull, cold, rainy 
Saturday afternoon, some five years ago, I heard a ring at 
my door. As the servant did not immediately appear to 
answer the call, I myself went to the door, where I found 
two persons in shabby and tattered dress, standing on the 
steps, with their clothes dripping with rain. The female 
was the first to speak, inquiring if I would not render 
some assistance to a distressed couple, who were extreme 
ly destitute, and far from country and home. The tones 
of her voice were so sweet and gentle, her manners so 
modest and unobtrusive, and the language which she used 
so well chosen, and even elegant, I felt convinced that 
they had indeed seen better days, and I should have done 
the greatest violence to my feelings, and every better prin 
ciple of my nature, had I not opened my door and bid 
them enter. After they had dried themselves by the fire, 
and partaken of some refreshment, I asked them to tell me 
their history. The outline of it was as follows : They 
were both natives of Ireland, where they had always re 
sided till about four years since. Mrs. S , the name 

of this female, and the wife of the man who accompanied 
her, was the daughter of a clergyman of the Established 
Church, who was vicar of a parish in Ireland, the name of 
which I do not now recollect. She was brought up in 
great tenderness and highly educated, as she was an only 
daughter. Being a novel reader and full of romantic ideas, 
she took it into her head to fall in love with a young brick 
layer, who was engaged in working upon a house that 


The Irish Couple. 

was building near the vicarage. She found means of meet 
ing him unknown to her parents, and they were soon en 
gaged to be married. At the appointed time she stole 
away secretly from home, met her lover at a specified spot, 
and then they went together to a distant part of the coun 
try, where they were married. She then sent home to her 
parents, confessing the whole affair. They were very in 
dignant, and returned so severe an answer, that she and 
her husband concluded to embark at once for America. 
They soon put their resolution into execution, and after a 
very long voyage found themselves at Montreal, without 
any means of subsistence. Her husband succeeded in 
obtaining some employment, so that they lived along com 
fortably for nearly a year. About this time she became the 
mother of a little daughter, and accidentally hearing that the 

Rev. Mr. , who was a brother of her mother's, and 

had been in this country several years, was residing at 
Troy, she persuaded her husband to go with her in quest 
of her uncle. When they reached Troy, they found that 

there was no Rev. Mr. residing there. Here they 

lived for some time, Mr. S hiring himself out to a 

builder, who was carrying on a large business there. 

After S had earned about one hundred dollars besides 

his living, this builder unexpectedly failed, and absconded 

without paying off any of his hands. S was again 

left in poverty, and without employment. A few months 
before, their little babe had sickened and died. They had 
recently heard that their relative resided in Boston. They 
therefore started off with the hope of finding him : having 
at length reached Northampton in great destitution, they 
made known their situation to the Rev. Dr. P , who 


The Irish Couple. 

relieved them from present distress, and informed them 
that the clergyman whom they were seeking lived in Phila 
delphia. With a view of going thither they had come to 
the place where I resided. The whole story appeared 
natural, and though thay told it to a number of different 
individuals, they never contradicted themselves. Mr. 

S was rough and uncultivated just such a man as 

a bricklayer would be. On the other hand Mrs. S * 

was evidently an accomplished lady. She was acquainted 
with books, played on the piano forte, and sung beauti 
fully. A clergyman bearing the name of the one whom 
she claimed as her uncle, actually resided in Philadelphia, 
and had not long since visited England and Ireland, as she 
said. I could detect no incongruity in any part of the 
narrative. They remained with us a week during which 
time a number of our friends fitted them both out with 
new apparel, and procured for them the means of travelling 
with comfort to Philadelphia. I have seldom known so 
much sympathy to be awakened for destitute strangers as 
there was in their case. Several individuals accompanied 
them to the steamboat when they left, and wished them 
God speed. I sent by them a letter to the Rev. Mr. 
* informing him of the facts above related. This 
was the last I ever heard of them ! I saw the Rev. Mr. 

in a few months ; he informed me he had never 

received the letter, that he had no relatives in Ireland, and 
that so far as he was concerned it must have been a sheer 
fabrication. My friends and myself, when these facts 
came to our knowledge, had a hearty laugh over this 
affair, and though we regretted that this Irish couple had 
used such deception, at least in one particular we did not 


The Irish Couple. 

regret that we had fed the hungry, clothed the naked, and 
sent them on their way with solemn admonitions about the 
salvation of their souls. 

Very little of interest is to be seen on the way between 
Albany and Schenectady across those sandy plains, save 
the distant tops of the Cattskill to the south, and the misty 
summits of the Green mountains to the north. Our course 
from Schenectady up the valley of the Mohawk was very 
delightful. The beautiful sylvan scenery up this valley, 
with its broken sheets of water, and dark rich verdure, re 
minded me of some scenes in England, which I can never 
forget. I need not describe the grand and rugged moun 
tain scenery which nature has thrown up in forms of sin 
gular wildness around the Little Falls, nor the upland and 
undulating country through which one has to pass to reach 
the spot whence I write. 

Here then, I am, far away from the strife of tongues, 
the agitations of business, and the dust and din of the city. 
The green hills are all around me, presenting a coat of 
dark rich verdure, which shows that they have not this 
season felt the blight of the withering and far-spread 
drought. All amid these retired hills appears full of quiet 
ness and repose a fit place in which to study one's own 
heart and try to get nearer to heaven. I attended the other 
evening, what in England would be denominated a cottage 
meeting. The inhabitants of the neighbourhood were 
gathered together in a private house, and after suitable de 
votions conducted by the pastor, the people were familiar 
ly and solemnly addressed on the subject of their immortal 
interests. These meetings, I understand, are held weekly 
in different parts of the village, and will, I doubt not, carry 



The Irish Couple. 

salvation to many a house. What an inexpressible bles 
sing is a faithful pastor, who cares for the flock, and uses 
every means in his power to guide them in the way ever 
lasting ! 


Western New York. 



F 'airfield, N. Y., Oct. 1. 

WITHIN the last week I have made an excursion into 
the central part of Western New York. I never fail, 
while travelling through this region, to be impressed with 
the conviction, that this is the garden of America ! The 
soil itself has in every field you pass, and upon every hill 
side and vale to which you turn your eye, ten thousand 
witnesses to attest its astonishing fertility. And then there 
are treasures beneath the soil more valuable than silver or 
gold, in the vast beds of lime and plaster, and the ex- 
haustless saline springs, scattered at different points over 
this region. Here, also, you have beautiful scenery in ten 
thousand varied forms : and if you wish to view nature in 
one of her more awful moods, you have only to draw near 
and listen to the tremendous roar of Niagara, and see the 
collected waters of an hundred lakes, dashed headlong in 
one great, furious tide, down the vast precipice, to the 
deep, rocky channel below. 

I am sure the traveller who passes along the old post- 
road from Utica to Buffalo, and sees the hundred beautiful 
villages, the noble forests, the majestic trees, the rich 
foliage, the luxuriant orchards, the luscious fruits, the 


Western New York. 

crops of yellow wheat, the fields of waving corn, the vast 
enclosures of dark, fertile soil, the peaceful lakes and sil 
very streams that everywhere meet the eye, will exclaim, 
THE GARDEN OF AMERICA ! And then when he sees all 
this beautiful region intersected by canals and bound to 
gether by turnpikes, railroads, and lake and steam navi 
gation, he will feel that Western New York possesses 
advantages of a most singular and superior character ! 

Last year in some few sketches of a tour to the West, 
a brief description was given of Geneva. This sweet vil 
lage, take it all in all, I must regard as the gem of Western 
New York. I cannot conceive of a more lovely place for 
residence than this beautiful village on the banks of Seneca 
% * * # * * * 

It was towards the close of the day that I reached this 
place, a spot with which so many sweet and sacred recol 
lections were connected in my mind. My destination for 
the night was a few miles beyond it in the country. The 
road along which I passed lay through a scene full of syl 
van beauty, disclosing every half mile to the eye of the 
traveller through the opening of the trees a beautiful view 
of a portion of the lake, that now slept in the sweet even 
ing calm, tranquil as a sea of glass. The house of our 
friends was at length reached and there were such greet 
ings and gladness of heart, as they only feel who have 
been long and far separated from each other, with but little 
hope that they should ever again meet this side of eternity. 


A Summer Tour. 



Retirement Seneca Lake Burlington, N. J. Brooklyn, N. Y. 

THE following chapters are made up of letters detailing 
incidents of travel connected with a tour from Philadel 
phia to Rhode Island, and from thence into Western New 
York, during the summer of 1840. 

Seneca, July 22. 

Although nearly five weeks have elapsed since I left 
Philadelphia, I have not, till the present time, had an op 
portunity of redeeming my promise in giving you the 
sketches I promised. I am now enjoying what I have 
been sighing for ever since I started on my summer ex 
cursion, quietude and seclusion. Here I am encompassed 
with delightful rural scenery, and passing the live-long 
day undisturbed by the calls of either friends or parish 
ioners making demands upon my time or services. 

I cannot understand, how those who reside in the city and 
who escape for a weeks in summer from the dust, and din, 
and heat, and ceaseless cares that assail them amid the scenes 
of their daily occupation, can from choice fly for recrea 
tion to other cities, or to fashionable watering places, 



A Summer Tour. 

where they are sure to encounter all the inconveniences 
they have left behind, with scarcely any of their home 
comforts. To me it would seem infinitely more desirable 
to seek " a lodge in some vast wilderness some bound 
less contiguity of shade." Indeed I must say, I very 
much prefer a wholly rural district, to the most picturesque 
country village, in which to spend the few weeks during 
which I am to seek to recruit my health, and prepare for 
the duties and labors that await me on my return to the 
city. In such a situation one has not to make a constant 
effort to be agreeable. You can sit down and vegetate 
for a while, without being called upon to make any intel 
lectual exertion whatever. Here one can sit or walk, 
wake or sleep, lounge or ride, as he chooses ; he can read 
or write, or stroll forth amid the quiet fields, or sit be 
neath the shade of some wide-spreading tree. There is 
much in such a scene to hush all stormy passions to re 
pose to tranquillize one's existence, and to lift up the 
heart in devout aspirations to God. 

My location for a few weeks is in just such a rural dis 
trict near the banks of Seneca Lake, a beautiful ex 
panse of water, of which I will tell you more hereafter. 
Around me are scattered farm-houses and orchards, and 
smiling fields, interspersed here and there with remaining 
fragments of that once mighty forest, that in the early his 
tory of this country waved in unbroken majesty from the 
shores of one lake to another. Here we see all the beauty 
of dark, deep, American foliage, and all the light, glowing 
brightness of American verdure, so strikingly in contrast 
with the English. On every side of me, I see from the 
window where I sit writing, the busy scenes of the hay 


A Summer Tour. 

harvest the mowers swinging their scythes or pausing 
for a moment to whet the shining steel the young lads, 
full of the life and spring of joyous youth, spreading the 
new mown grass the rakers gathering up the hay into 
winnows, or rolling it into heaps ; and the loaded wains 
creaking under the burthen of the fragrant products of the 
meadow, slowly moving towards the barn or the rising 
stack. I look across to another field, and there waves in 
silent beauty the newly tasselled corn ; while in a third, 
I see the golden headed wheat, gently nodding in the 
breeze, or bowing before the keen stroke of the cradler, 
or the more slow, but no less sure onward movement of 
the reaper. Above this rural scene spreads a cloudless 
canopy, and upon it the great luminary of day is pouring 
a flood of brightness. The sky, however, is not always 
cloudless here the heavens not always serene nor the 
day always bright, as I shall have occasion to relate to 
you before finishing these sketches. 

Having thus informed you something of my present lo 
cality, I will return to the commencement of my journey, 
and if you and your readers will follow me in a tour along 
a very common-place track, I will endeavor to furnish 
them and you with such GLEANINGS BY THE WAY as I was 
able to make. 

Our first landing place after turning our backs upon 
Philadelphia, was Burlington, N. J., where we spent a 
week in the most delightful manner. Often as I had pass 
ed that place by steamboat or rail road car, and much as I 
had admired its location, a single stroll along the green 
bank that skirts the Delaware, shaded as it is with luxuri 
ant and full grown trees, convinced me that I had never 


A Summer Tour. 

appreciated one half of the beauties of this sweet spot. 
The country seat of one of my parishioners, located on 
GREEN BANK, amid the thickest and tallest cluster of those 
trees which add so much beauty to the whole extent of the 
river side, was the hospitable mansion where we spent 
our time and from which we could look out and watch 
the changing phases of the river, the passing of the steam 
ers, the garniture of the fields beyond, the glowing tints 
of the evening sky, and the golden glories of the setting 
sun. We enjoyed our walks along the verdant bank and 
over the green lawn we enjoyed our little excursions 
across the river in the row-boat but most of all we en 
joyed that sweet Christian converse we were permitted to 
have with the kind friends beneath whose hospitable roof 
we lodged. 

Strangers in passing Burlington are usually attracted 
by the singular appearance of one particular mansion that 
stands near the banks of the river, surmounted by a small 
cross. Although this is sometimes mistaken for a church, 
I need not tell you it is the residence of the Bishop of 
New Jersey. This structure to an American eye, at first 
sight, has rather an uncouth appearance ; but this impres 
sion will be corrected in the mind of every one who takes 
the trouble to visit this Episcopal palace. The interior 
arrangements are delightful, and exhibit great taste. While 
traversing its spacious apartments, we were strikingly re 
minded of some antiquated structures that we saw in Eng 
land. During our stay at Burlington, the Bishop was ab 
sent. The institution of St. Mary's Hall is, of course, 
one of the things that will be likely to attract the attention 
of a visiter to this place, I was invited by the super- 



A Summer Tour. 

intendant to attend the family worship of the young ladies 
connected with this institution on Sunday evening. The 
evening service of the Liturgy was read ; after which, by 
the request of the superintendent, I addressed a few words 
of Christian counsel to the assembled group. I have sel 
dom seen a more interesting or intelligent company of 
young beings than those who then sat before me ; and the 
solemn attention and evident sensibility with which they 
listened, led me to hope that under the Christian culture 
they were receiving, in connection with their intellectual 
training, they would all at last be found among the sheep 
of Christ's heavenly fold. 

Our time passed quickly away while we remained at 
Burlington, and the hour we had fixed for our departure, 
came by far too soon. But life itself is like a journey, 
and to all our bright sunny spots here below, we have to 
bid an adieu almost as soon as we have reached them. 
Our next stopping place, after leaving Burlington, was 
Brooklyn, N. Y., where we were welcomed to the hospi 
talities of the spacious domicil of a Christian friend, to 
whom our hearts were knit in strong attachment, when 
existence with us was fresher than it now is. O, it is de 
lightful to find in this cold, heartless, fickle world, one 
who remains amid all the fluctuations of this changeful 
scene, the same; one, who, after the lapse of years, and 
who, though borne high upon the swelling tide of worldly 
prosperity, continues to the end the same simple, warm 
hearted friend and consistent heavenly-minded Christian 
that he was at the first starting point of life. Such was 
the friend in the bosom of whose happy family we were 
permitted to abide during our stay at Brooklyn. 



A Summer Tour. 

I shall by no means attempt to enter into a detail of the 
scenes or incidents connected with our visit to New York, 
or Brooklyn ; but there are two things which I am not dis 
posed to pass entirely by. 

I was present during a portion of the exercises of the 
commencement of the New York Seminary, and felt par 
ticularly interested in the Address of Bishop Ives to the 
graduating class. It contained exceedingly well-timed 
counsel, calculated to produce a most salutary effect upon 
the minds, not only of those about to assume the responsi 
bilities of the sacred office, but of all those engaged in the 
exercise of its functions. The subject was the indispensa 
ble necessity of humility to the clerical character. There 
was a pathos and force and unction about the Bishop's re 
marks, that we think must have gone home to every heart. 

Had we among us universally that lowliness of mind 
and gentleness of spirit which the Bishop so happily pour- 
trayed and so delightfully enforced, we should soon learn, 
both laity and clergy, in the great essentials to "be all of 
one mind ; to love as brethren ; to be courteous ; to be 
patient toward all men, not rendering evil for evil, or rail 
ing for railing ; but contrary wise blessing." May the 
Lord speed the happy day when all the members and min 
isters of our Church may " be clothed with humility" 
may have as the controlling principle of their lives, dwell 
ing in them and pervading all their thoughts and actions, 
" the meekness and gentleness of Christ." 

The other particular to which I referred as worthy of 
some passing notice, I shall have to reserve for my next 


Green Wood Cemetery. 



Brooklyn Improvements Ride Approach to the Cemetery 
Views Beautiful scenes. 

Seneca, July Z9th. 

IN my last I conducted you on my journey as far as 
Brooklyn, N. Y. My temporary stay there was at South 
Brooklyn, a portion of that enterprising town which has 
been but recently built up. Scarcely any thing during 
my tour has more astonished me than the wonderful 
growth of this place. From a little rural village, it has 
grown up, in a few years, to a city, which, though it can 
not pretend to rival the mighty metropolis that lies spread 
out in gigantic dimensions on the other side of the river, 
can still number its thirty or forty thousand inhabitants. 
One of the causes that have contributed to the rapid growth 
of this town, is its vicinity to New York. Gentlemen en 
gaged in business in New York, find it pleasant and health 
ful to have their residences located upon the hills of Brook 
lyn, which look off upon the beautiful bay, and are daily 
fanned with fresh breezes from the ocean. While Brook 
lyn is thus increasing in population, I was happy to find 
that a corresponding increase was observable in its reli- 


Green Wood Cemetery. 

gious institutions and houses of public worship. The tem 
porary edifice occupied by the congregation of Christ 

Church, of which our friend the Rev. K. G is rector, 

is soon to be abandoned, and a new and beautiful Gothic 
structure is to be erected for the occupancy of that congre 
gation. I was greatly delighted with what I saw of this 
congregation. The labours of our brother seem to have 
been peculiarly blessed. He has gathered around him a 
most interesting people, and God has sent among them 
already multiplied tokens of his converting grace. Where- 
ever the Gospel is faithfully, and earnestly preached, and 
its holy precepts illustrated in the daily walk and conver 
sation of those who " bear the vessels of the Lord," reli 
gion will prosper, and the church become like the garden 
of the Lord. 

But I commenced this letter with a view of giving you 
an account of another matter, referred to in my last a 
visit to the Green Wood Cemetery. 

The friend with whom I was staying, charged me not 
to think of leaving Brooklyn without paying a visit to this 
Cemetery. I had heard something of these picturesque 
grounds, but had formed no adequate conception of their 
beauty. Several racy and graphic notices, from time to 
time, have appeared in the New York papers, as I since 
learned, of this magnificent ground plot, where is to be 
constructed a vast subterranean city for the dead. None 
of these, however, had fallen under my eye, and I there 
fore did not go prepared to witness the magnificent scene 
of wild and sylvan beauty, that a ride over these grounds 
revealed to me. My visit to this spot almost instantly un 
folded to me the origin and propriety of its name, GREEN 
WOOD CEMETERY a large portion of the grounds being 


Green Wood Cemetery. 

covered with green wood. The great interest of this spot 
arises from the natural beauty of the grounds in connection 
with the association of the purpose to which it has been 
devoted : for as yet not a grave has been dug here, nor a 
monument reared. 

It was a bright sunny morning, while a bland balmy 
sea breeze refreshed the air, in which we started to visit 
the Green Wood Cemetery. We rode from South Brook 
lyn along on the margin of the bay, some two miles 
or more, till we had passed the little village of Gowanus, 
before we ascertained the exact locality of this future city 
of the dead. A short distance beyond the village just 
named, at a spot signalized in the Revolutionary war as 
the scene of a bloody engagement, we left the road, and 
entered a lane leading to the grounds of this Cemetery. 
This lane, from the gate onward, had all the appearance 
of wild and uncultivated rusticity, being shut in on either 
side with a sort of rude hedge, and shaded by forest trees 
and brushwood. For a while it conducted us through cul 
tivated grounds, and we saw on each side of us, rich fields 
of grain, and corn growing in all the luxuriance of summer. 
Soon, however, this lane in its winding and upward course 
brought us into a scene perfectly sylvan, and woodland in 
its character. There was a stillness and seclusion around 
us that impressed us with the idea that we were in the 
depths of a vast forest, such as we might expect to find a 
thousand miles from the great metropolis, whose steeples, 
and shipping, and scenes of vast activity were visible a 
few rods from the spot we now occupied. We had already 
entered upon the grounds of the Cemetery. They consist 
of about two hundred acres. I never before saw the same 
extent of territory combining such vast variety of scenery. 


Green Wood Cemetery. 

There is here forest and field, hill and dale, streamlet and 
lake in such variety, and singular juxtaposition, that in 
following the circuitous avenue that conducts you over 
these grounds in a ride of four miles, one is impressed 
with the idea that he has been travelling over a very ex 
tended district of country. It was not only the grounds them 
selves, but the views we caught of distant objects, from dif 
ferent points of the winding avenue, that helped to give effect 
to this whole scene. As we proceeded, every turn of the 
carriage wheel, either brought to view some new develope- 
ment of striking sylvan beauty, or opened upon us some 
new feature of loveliness, or grandeur in the surrounding 
prospect. At one point we were completely embosomed in 
trees, where all was stillness and deep repose as though we 
were shut up in some remote dell, amid the lofty and rug 
ged Alleghanies. Then again we emerged into smiling 
plains, and sunny fields, and smooth lawns of deepest 
green. Again our path conducted us into a dense forest, 
and we directly found ourselves upon the wooded brow of a 
steep declivity, sweeping off down to the margin of a little 
silent lake, whose dark shaded waters gave back with more 
than pictorial beauty, every tree and limb, and leaf whose 
shadow fell upon their surface : and then soon we again 
emerged from this forest scene, and found grassy fields, and 
an extended open country lie stretching around us. The 
winding avenue which we traced, every few rods brought us 
to a point of observation, where the surrounding scenery, 
made up of bays and islands, rivers and mountains, cities 
and villages, farms and country houses, and forests, put 
on a new phase, and, like the turn of a kaleidoscope, pre 
sented a new and still more beautiful picture to the eye. 
The highest elevation of land in these grounds, is near 


Green Wood Cemetery. 

their centre, and is said to be the highest point ofland upon 
Long Island, it manifestly is the highest point in this part 
of the Island. It is called Mount Washington, from a deter 
mination already formed on the part of the proprietors of 
this ground, to erect upon its summit a lofty and magnificent 
monument to the Father of his country. From this ele 
vated point, a panoramic view of surpassing beauty, in al 
most illimitable perspective, opens upon the eye. In one 
direction you see the blue waves of the outstretched ocean, 
upon which are visible all along the margin of the horizon, 
the whitened canvass of a hundred receding or approach 
ing vessels; while in the intervening- space, are seen the 
plains of Flatland and Flatbush, covered with grain, and 
verdure, and orchards, and forests, villages, hamlets, and 
farm-houses. Turning directly around, the whole bay of 
New York, with its beauteous islands, and the two mag 
nificent rivers, whose mingled waters form the bay, to 
gether with the great metropolis itself, burst upon the 
view. Or to trace the prospect more leisurely : at one 
point, you see in the distance, Sandy Hook, and the Light 
house ; and a little further to the right, Staten Island, the 
Lazaretto, Brighton, and the Jersey shore : still faither to 
the right appears Jersey City, the waters of the broad 
Hudson, and along its banks, the palisades, and, still 
higher up, the highlands fading away in the dim distance. 
At a point in the landscape much nearer us rises to view the 
city of New York with its canopy of perpetual haze, its 
hundred spires, and encircling forests of masts, while in 
still closer vicinage we can trace the East River, with all 
its busy show of commerce, and see Brooklyn sitting like 
a bridal queen upon this shore of the island. 

We have often followed the remains of some friend, or 


Green Wood Cemetery. 

parishioner, to the picturesque grounds of our own LAUREL 
HILL we have traced each winding walk among the 
groves and tombs of MOUNT VERNON, and gazed upon the 
various monuments, the sculptured tombs, the dark shrub 
bery, and encircling scenery of Pere la Chaise; but we 
have no where seen such combined beauties, and natural 
advantages for a rural cemetery, as in the grounds which 
we have here attempted to describe. And what will these 
grounds be some hundred years hence, when art shall have 
reared up in every vale, around the margin of every lake, 
and upon every hill-side a thousand marble monuments, 
and when a larger population shall be ensepulchred here, 
than the living mass of beings that now inhabit New York 
and Brooklyn ? What multitudes and myriads will those 
two cities within the next hundred years send to be en 
tombed here ! How will the population of this subter 
ranean city go on increasing, till all these acres are covered 
over with piles of human dust ! And what a scene will 
be exhibited here, when the last trumpet sounds ! What 
myriads will start up here at that call ! " For all that are 
in their graves shall hear his voice and come forth !" 
And how solemn the truth which the Saviour subjoins, 
' they that have done good unto the resurrection of life, 
and they that have done evil unto the resurrection of 
damnation !" 

I have lingered so long about the grounds of Green 
Wood Cemetery, that I can tell you nothing in my present 
letter about our excursion to Rhode Island. 


Rhode Island. 



Sail up the Sound Burning of the Lexington Providence 

Meeting of old friends Mr. Emerson Transcendentalism 


Seneca, August 1. 

IN my last I was principally occupied in giving you 
some account of the picturesque grounds of Green Wood 
Cemetery. It was on Tuesday afternoon, the thirtieth of 
June, at five o'clock, that we started in the well-built and 
beautiful steamer MASSACHUSETTS, on our way upon an 
excursion to Rhode Island. The scenery along the East 
River and up the Sound presents evidences of higher cul 
tivation, but possesses features of less native picturesque 
wildness and rural beauty, than that which opens to view 
along the pathway of the Hudson. The atmosphere we 
encountered on our way to the steamboat issuing from 
every street of the great metropolis we had just left, was 
like the heat from a burning furnace. In delightful con 
trast with this, was the cool refreshing breeze that played 
around the bow of our advancing steamer, as we tracked 
our way up the river and along through the whirlpools and 
breakers of Hurlgate, a pass far more formidable, and re 
quiring vastly more nautical skill than the famous Straits 


Rhode Island. 

of Pelorus with Scylla on one side and Charybdis on the 
other. The evening was beautiful, and our sail up the 
Sound proved truly delightful. The last rays of twilight 
were beginning to fade away, and the countless stars stud 
ding the arched firmament, to twinkle with unwonted 
brightness, when we reached the spot where we were 
told the ill-fated LEXINGTON met her disastrous end. I 
could not but contrast the scene around me at the moment 
with the events of that awful night. We were sailing 
along over the tranquil and starlit bosom of the Sound, 
with the balmy breath of a summer evening fanning us : 
with no alarms within, no raging tempest without. But 
on that fearful night, and aboard that ill-fated vessel, what 
a scene was exhibited ! What amazement and terror and 
dismay must have seized every heart when the conflagra 
tion broke forth in all its fury ! What added exceedingly 
to the excitement, and no doubt tended greatly to bereave 
many of all self-possession and presence of mind, was 
that the fire burst out in the central part of the steamer, 
cutting off all communication between those occupying the 
forward and the hinder part of the boat. Thus, in this 
moment of awful peril, husbands and wives, parents and 
children, brothers and sisters were suddenly separated from 
each other by a wall of fire, and deprived of each other's 
counsel when most they needed it : and thus they were 
filled with increased alarm, not only for themselves, 
but for each other. Alas ! this was an hour when no man 
could help his brother, when the parent could neither 
save himself nor his children. If they remained on board 
the burning vessel, they must be consumed. If they 
plunged into the roaring waves they would sink into the 
depths beneath, and find there a watery grave : or if they 


Rhode Island. 

should escape the fury of the waves by clinging to a bale 
of cotton, or some floating part of the wreck, the chill 
winds of winter, and the icy waters that dashed over them, 
would soon stagnate and freeze to the very fountain the 
warm current of life. Thus all the elements of nature 
were armed against them, flame, and flood, and frost, and 
they could not escape. No imagination can conceive the 
horror or agony of the scene ! I leaned over the side of 
our steamer, as we passed the spot where this awful 
scene occurred, and tried to picture to myself some of its 
outlines. Even the picture which rose before me was too 
awful to contemplate. 

What a lesson that disaster ought to teach us of our en 
tire dependence upon God for safety while travelling by 
land, or by sea ! What an admonition ought it to sound 
in our ears to be always ready for death ! We know not 
the day nor the hour in which the Son of Man cometh ! 
Our death may be as sudden, and as unexpected, as that 
of any of those on board the Lexington, though it occur in 
our own dwelling, and in the bosom of our family. If we 
are truly the Lord's people, and our names are in the 
Lamb's book of life, it matters little when, or where death 
meets us : for then the grizly king becomes the friendly 
porter that opens to us the golden gates of paradise. 

The more usual course that passengers now pursue to 
Providence and Boston is to stop at Stonington, and take 
the rail-road cars from that point. By this means they 
reach Providence and Boston several hours earlier than 
they were accustomed to by the old route. But as the 
steamboat arrives at Stonington long before morning, we 
were not disposed to leave our quiet berths for the sake of 
reaching Providence some three or four hours earlier than 


Rhode Island. 

we otherwise should, and therefore kept on in the old 
course around Point Judith touching at Newport. 

The time that we spent at Providence in the midst of 
our old friends, I need not tell you, was passed most de 
lightfully. The church where I once preached the recon 
ciling word, the lecture-room where I saw countenances 
that called up with thrilling emotions the memory of days 
and scenes that will be fresh in my recollection through all 
eternity, the private circle where cordial greetings, and 
more than Highland welcomes met us, all these and the 
countless associations they awakened, seemed to throw 
around us such a circle of enchantment, that, when the 
time had elapsed which we had designed to spend there, 
we still lingered from day to day, as though unable to pass 
that circle. If there be one draught of enjoyment more 
delicious than another which a Christian minister is per 
mitted to drink this side of heaven, it is, when after years 
of absence, he returns to visit the flock from whom in the 
providence of God he was removed, and with whom his 
Jabours were once greatly blessed, and finds those for 
whose salvation he laboured, and whom he was instrumen 
tal in introducing into the fold of the Redeemer, "standing 
fast in the Lord," and exhibiting "the fruits of the Spirit;" 
or learns that those who are gone, and are numbered with 
the dead, departed in the triumphs of Christian faith. St. 
John could say, " / have no greater joy than to hear that 
my children walk in the truth."" And St. Paul, " For 
now we live if ye standfast in the Lord" The highest 
zest of the pleasure I enjoyed in this visit to the scene of 
my former labours, arose from what I saw and heard of 
the stability, and increased spirituality of a people with 


Rhode Island. 

whom I hope to sit down one day, in company with 
Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob in the kingdom of God. 

You are familiar with the whole topography of Rhode 
Island, and therefore I need say nothing of the interblend- 
ing of rural scenery and retirement, with city embellish 
ment and comfort, which so eminently distinguish not a 
few of the neat and elegant residences in Providence. 
There is one feature in the moral character of this city, 
which distinguishes' it from most other New England 
towns. In almost all New England the great mass of 
mind is educated, and the people upon all subjects think 
for themselves. Generally, however, especially in the in 
terior, the descendants of the Puritans, cleave in religious 
matters to the faith of their forefathers, and are opposed to 
all change. But in Rhode Island, there has always been 
a more liberal, and free-thinking spirit on the subject of 
religion than in any of the other New England states. 
It was here that Roger Williams fled when his Puritan 
brethren would not tolerate him in the Bay state. It was 
through his influence that a more enlightened feeling in 
reference to religious toleration was made to pervade the 
community settling at Providence, than was found at that 
period in any other New England town. And probably 
there is no place in our country, where, at this time, a more 
kind and catholic spirit, or a greater freedom from the in 
fluence of narrow, sectarian feeling prevails, than here. 
This tolerant spirit, however, in some minds, manifests a 
strong tendency to latitudinarianism. Hence, perhaps, 
there is no community in the world where a new religious 
sect would so soon gather intelligent adherents as at Provi 
dence, and no where, where more sound and able, and 
fearless advocates would rise up to defend the faith once 


Rhode Island. 

delivered to the saints." I have been led into this train of 
reflection, from encountering a greater prevalence of the 
transcendental spirit, at Providence, than I have anywhere 
before met in our country. This offshoot of German 
neology, issuing from the same parent stock with Socinian- 
ism, finds a congenial soil in a Unitarian community. You 
are aware that the Rev. Mr. Emerson, formerly a Unitarian 
minister at Boston, has embraced transcendentalism in all 
its heights and depths. Whether he be actually deranged, 
as some suppose, or not, matters very little, since multi 
tudes, and some who desire to be classed among the elite 
of the land, are ready to gather around him and receive the 
law of their belief from his mouth. He has recently made 
a visit to Providence, and developed by means of lectures 
and conversations, his peculiar views. He is spoken of as 
a man of genius, and wonderfully attractive. He is a 
thorough pantheist. He believes that every thing in nature 
is a part of God that good men are incarnations of Deity, 
and that it was in this sense alone, that God is said to be 
" made flesh" in the person of Jesus Christ. He places 
Socrates, and Zoroaster and Jesus in the same category, 
and considers that they differed from each other only in 
the degree of inspiration which they had. He thinks that 
the writings of Socrates and Plato, and Zoroaster should 
be bound up in the same volume with the Bible, and that 
they are entitled to more confidence, and marked with 
deeper wisdom than some portions of our present canon of 

During Mr. Emerson's stay at Providence, having ad 
vanced some crude idea, he was referred to a -saying of the 
Saviour, which contradicted his position : when he very 
deliberately replied, " Jesus was mistaken" On another 


Rhode Island. 

occasion speaking of the Saviour, he said : Jesus was a 
very good man, I wish he had been better : he had no fun, 
no humour in his character, in this respect he was imper 
fect." Such are some of the specimens of gross infidelity, 
which the abettors of transcendentalism in New England, 
openly put forth. The charm of this transcendental 
scheme consists partly in the metaphysical mystification, the 
sentimental namby-pambyism, the crazed poetic inspira 
tion, with which the masters of this school speak and 
write. Then there is much to soothe and flatter the pride 
of the human heart, in the idea which they would have 
every man take up that he is a pure emanation of Deity, 
a bright scintillation from the divine mind, and that all he 
has to do, is to follow the lofty inspirations of his own 
mind, and then he will sparkle forth along the track of 
being, an incarnate God. One very truly remarked in re 
lation to transcendentalism, that it was no new doctrine, 
that it was taught as long ago as when man was in the garden 
of Eden : even then, the father of lies, said to our first 
ancestors, eat the forbidden fruit, and "ye shall be as 

In the midst of abounding iniquity and multiplying 
error, it behoves the friends of truth to stand on the watch 
tower and give the people timely warning. I felt greatly 
refreshed and truly delighted in various interviews with 
the clergy whom I met in Rhode Island. My mind natu 
rally reverted to the scenes of former days, when I was 
so pleasantly associated with them, and when we used to 
meet at the monthly Convocations as a band of brothers, 
having one heart and one mind, and labouring together for 
one simple object, the upbuilding of the Saviour's king 
dom and the glory of God. Great changes since that 


*" I 


Rhode Island. 

period have taken place. Some of these brethren have 
gone to the north, and some to the south some to the 
east, and some to the west ; and yet the character of the 
Rhode Island clergy continues the same. Take them all 
in all, I know of no set of men more thoroughly evangelical 
or more truly devoted to the best interests of the Church 
of Christ ; or occupying a more elevated stand for piety, 
and learning and talents, than the clergy of Rhode Island. 

I passed a few days at Westerly, and could not but re 
member with gratitude my first visit to this place some six 
years ago. As I saw the beautiful church the neat par 
sonage house the respectable congregation, and the mul 
tiplied tokens of true piety around me, I could not but 
say, " What hath God wrought .'" Never can I doubt 
that the power of God is connected with Revivals of 
religion, while I remember the scenes of Westerly while 
so many " fruits of the Spirit" remain, of consistent, de 
voted, exemplary followers of Christ, brought to a know 
ledge of the truth in a revival. Because men get up imi 
tations of the work of the Lord, as the magicians did of 
the miracles of Moses, it does not invalidate the Lord's 
work any more than those magical attempts did the truth 
of his miracles. 

I have room only to add, if the Lord permits, you will 
soon hear from me again. 


The sudden storm. 



Rapid travelling Auburn rStage coach Seneca Lake Sum 
mer's sultry heat Sudden change Fierce tempest Imminent 

Seneca, August 6th. 

IN our journey to this place, we had a practical illustra 
tion of the increased facilities and greatly accelerated move 
ments of modern travelling. Having left New York on 
Wednesday evening, the fifteenth of July, at five o'clock, 
we found ourselves the next evening, before nine o'clock, 
at Auburn a distance but little short of three hundred and 
fifty miles, which was passed over, omitting, in our reck 
oning, the time spent at Albany, Utica, and Syracuse, in 
about twenty-one hours. 

I cannot now stop to notice the refreshing influence of 
the broad-swelling tide of the noble Hudson as we sailed 
up this stream nor the picturesque aspect of the palisades 
nor the more sublime features of the rugged and sombre 
highlands, throwing their dark shadows upon the moonlit 
waters below ; neither can I now stay to tell you any 
thing of the improvements in the capital of the great em 
pire state, nor of the improving aspect of the interior city, 
which stands, as it were, on the dividing line between 


The sudden storm. 

Eastern and Western New York nor yet of the peculiari 
ties of the rising town, which is the centre and the great 
emporium of the salt trade, and which has appropriated to 
itself the dignified name of the renowned city where the 
great Archimides met his fate. Passing by all these, with 
railroad speed, and all the varied beauties of a magnificent 
agricultural region, I hasten to give you some account of an 
adventure in which we found ourselves involved just be 
fore arriving at this place. The railroad is completed no 
farther than Auburn, from which place we were obliged 
to come on in a common stage coach. The morning was very 
hot and dusty, and our ride, although only about twenty 
miles, seemed long and tedious. The driver of our coach, 
in order to avoid the deep sand between Waterloo and 
Geneva, took the lake-road, which brought us on to the 
beach of the lake, about three miles from Geneva. From 
this point, on quite to the village, we keep along upon the 
circling margin of the lake, with the waters of the broad 
Seneca dashing up over the pebbly shore, almost laving 
with every returning surge the carriage wheels. Here too 
we see the whole expanse of the lake, which is about three 
miles wide, together with the beautiful farms that sweep 
away from the shores back into the country ; and are also 
able to follow the long track of these far stretching waters 
many miles towards their head. Upon a noble and finely- 
elevated bluff of land which forms the shore and north 
western corner of this beautiful lake, the village of Geneva, 
with its colleges and churches, and stores and elegant resi 
dences, surrounded with gardens and embowered in shade, 
lies spread out in one noble panoramic view. We had 
reached the point where all this scene of beauty opened 
upon us. We thought we never saw the lake more placid 


The sudden storm. 

nor all nature more quiet. Every thing seemed to 
be oppressed with the weight of the sultry and heated at 
mosphere. Immediately around us was a rural district, 
from the living features of which Thomson might have 
drawn all the pictures that make up one scene of his 
SUMMER. A various group of herds and flocks were scat 
tered around us. Some lay ruminating on the grassy 
bank ; while others stood half in the flood, and *' often 
bent to sip the circling surface." Deeper in the lake 
drooped the strong laborious ox " of honest front, which 
incomposedhe shook;" and lashed from his sides the trou 
blous insects with his tail. Not a breath of air seemed to 
shake a bough of the leafy elm, or spread a ripple over 
the glassy waters. But as we rode leisurely along the 
sandy beach, a little cloud seemed gathering over the lake, 
and now and then a faint gleam of lightning played with 
fitful and flickering blaze over its darkening fold. We had 
nearly reached the place of our destination, and were con 
gratulating ourselves that we should be in the midst of our 
friends and under safe shelter before the shower reached 
us. But scarcely had we thought this, before the heavens 
began to gather blackness and the wind to rise and roar as 
though a tempest were coming. And indeed a tempest 
was coming ; for scarcely five minutes had elapsed after 
the first visible indications of the coming storm before a 
perfect gale struck us. The waters of the lake were dashed 
into the wildest scene of agitation the trunks, and band 
boxes, and baggage began to be blown from the top of our 
coach, and chased along on the ground, " like a rolling 
thing before the whirlwind." And then the rain began to 
descend, and to rush into our carriage as though the water 
had been scooped up from the lake and poured upon us in 


The sudden storm. 

a torrent. We had no time to fasten down the uprolled 
curtains of our coach ; we had no time to protect ourselves 
in any way our baggage was flying our horses were 
frightened our driver could hardly keep in his seat. And 
still the storm increased: the wind swept down in a nar 
row column from the head of the lake with all the fury of 
a tornado, and blew our horses and coach quite up against 
the fence, where the rain continued to come in upon us as 
though a water spout had broken directly over our heads. 
But this was not our greatest difficulty. Our carriage was 
now in a position in which it seemed impossible that it 
should not be upset. The wheels had already become en 
tangled in the fence. One of the huge stakes of the fence 
was thrust into the window of our carriage which we could 
not remove, while the carriage itself was rocking, and 
nearly on its side. The horses all this time were floun 
dering and jumping, and exceedingly restive ; but the 
wind was so strong that they could not move forward. 
There were three ladies in the coach, of whom I had the 
care, besides my wife and children, and nurse. Never 
before did I so fully realize that I was held in the hollow 
of God's hand, as at this perilous moment. For at least five 
minutes there seemed to be but a hair's breadth between 
us and death. But we looked unto the Lord, and he de 
livered us. In a few moments the storm abated the rain 
ceased the dark clouds rolled away, and the sun came 
forth as bright and as lustrous as though no mist or dark 
thunder cloud had ever obscured his disk. 


Reminiscences of the past. 



Sunday Sacred worship The sanctuary recalling youthful scenes 
Early plighted vows at the table of the Lord Retrospect Mourn- 

ul reflections Change in the congregation Mr. and Mrs. N 

The C family Col. T Village burial ground C 

., buried pastor My mother Palmyra Early ministerial labours 

F airfield, Aug. 15th. 

IN these GLEANINGS BY THE WAY, I have very little 
plan or method, but send you just what happens to interest 
me most at the time. 

Perhaps there are no two places that we visit, after long 
years of absence, with so much interest as the sanctuary 
where we first plighted our vows of allegiance at the sacra 
mental table to Jehovah, and the old, shaded burial place 
where repose the ashes of many whom we knew and loved 
in early life. In my late excursion through Western New 
York, I was permitted to enjoy this pleasing, yet melan 
choly satisfaction. Upon the first Sunday of the present 
month, I was permitted to worship in the sanctuary where 
twenty-two years before I first knelt at the communion 
table to receive the consecrated symbols of my Saviour's 
dying love. As I stood within the rail of the altar and 


Reminiscences of the past. 

looked around that sanctuary, a tide of thought rushed 
upon me, awakening in my mind varied and conflicting 

The sacred place with its history called up some pleas 
ing reflections. I could not but rejoice that " the truth as 
it is in Jesus" continued to be proclaimed there, and that 
the cross of Christ was perpetually held up as the sinner's 
only hope. I could not but rejoice to see the increase and 
prosperity of Christ's spiritual flock; the number of com 
municants having swelled from fifty to nearly two hun 
dred. I could not but be thankful to remember how mer 
cifully and kindly the Lord had led me through the wilder 
ness for more than twenty years, and how unerringly he 
had fulfilled all his covenant promises ! 

But there were also painful reflections called up by 
what I saw before me. Remembering as I did that here, 
in this spot my covenant vows were pledged before high 
heaven, I could not but recollect how far I had fallen short 
of that entire consecration to God that separation from 
the world, and supreme love for Christ, implied in those 
vows I could not but recollect what poor returns I had 
rendered to that Saviour who had laid down his life for my 
redemption, to that merciful God 

******* that sought me 
Wretched wanderer, far astray ; 

Found me lost, and kindly brought me 
From the paths of death away. 

Since the hour I had first knelt at that altar to consecrat^ 
myself to the service of Jehovah, his covenant promises 
had been all verified. " Not one thing had failed of all 
the good things which the Lord my God had spoken con- 


Reminiscences of the past 

cerning me." During all this period, " his loving kind 
ness he had not taken away, nor suffered his faithfulness 
to fail." But amid all these unwearied displays of divine 
faithfulness, alluring me with the sweetness of spiritual 
joys, and rousing my dullness, as well as rebuking my 
waywardness with the chastenings of a father's rod, how 
often had I, like Israel of old, by spiritual declension, and 
worldly conformity " forsaken the Lord provoked the 
holy one of Israel unto anger, and gone away backward !" 
Most overwhelming, indeed, would have been the review 
of the past, but for that voice of redeeming love which 
breathed from the altar on which lay the symbols of 
Christ's great sacrifice, saying * the blood of Jesus 
Christ cleanseth from all sin." " Come now, and let us 
reason together, saith the Lord ; though your sins be as 
scarlet, they shall be as white as snow ; though they be 
red like crimson, they shall be as wool." "If any man 
sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ, 
the righteous; and he is the propitiation for our sins." 

The scene within that sanctuary also awakened other 
mournful reflections. A large congregation sat before me, 
but where were the individuals and families that twenty 
years before filled those pews ? Only here and there 
amid the assembled congregation could be traced a familiar 
countenance. The great mass had gone ! Some had un 
doubtedly left the place and removed to other parts of the 
country; but the majority of the senior members of the 
former congregation, had finished their probation and gone 
to the Spirit land ! How solemn did the place seem as I 
stood and looked upon the mere handful now remaining of 
that large congregation that once filled this temple. There 
were four pews to which my eye was particularly directed. 


Reminiscences of the past. 

1 recollected distinctly how they were occupied twenty 
years ago. Each of the families that sat in those pews 
were among the most respectable and influential people in 
the place. Regular as the Sabbath morn came, was Mr. and 

Mrs. N with their large and interesting family seen 

moving up the aisle in a dignified train and with looks of 
deepest seriousness towards their pew. He was for a long 
time one of the wardens of the chnrch. He had rilled 
some most important posts of civil duty, and enjoyed the 

esteem and respect of all. Mrs. N afforded in her 

whole life a most lovely specimen of consistent, dignified, 
matronly piety. So extensive were the charities of this 
family, that it might almost literally be said of them, that 
" they were eyes to the blind, and feet to the lame. They 
delivered the poor that cried, and the fatherless, and him 
that had none to help him," so that in truth wherever 
they went in the neighbourhood of their own home, "the 
blessing of him that was ready to perish came upon them ; 
and they caused the widow's heart to sing for joy." But 
those venerable forms, those worthy characters, were no 
longer to be seen in that pew. Long since they had been 
borne to the place of the dead, and several of those children 
that used to sit by them, had also been laid by their side 
in the grave. Adjoining this pew, was another occupied 
by a family of great respectability and worth. The head 
of this family was one who filled a large space in the pub 
lic mind, and for many years held a seat in the highest 
legislative council of the nation. I looked for him in that 
pew, but he was not there ! he p was numbered with the 
dead ! I was wont to see amid that family group, a young 
beautiful blooming girl the pride of her parents' hearts, 
but now she was not there ! She had been married, and 


Reminiscences of the past. 

had every thing around her that earth could afford to make 
one happy. But in the midst of all that was bright and 
lovely, consumption had fixed its deadly blight upon her, 
and nothing could rescue her from the grave. 

I looked across the church to two other pews, their 
former occupants, though they were families that had been 
long residents in the place, and possessed great wealth 
and respectability, were gone. Not a single representa 
tive of either family remained in the congregation or the 

place. Mr. C , the head of one of these families, was 

also long a warden of the church. They had a lovely 
daughter, who was an only child. I well recollect her 
appearance in the house of God. She was a delicate 
flower, and most tenderly was she nurtured by her affec 
tionate parents. All their earthly hopes seemed to centre 
in her. No expense was spared in her education. Every 
advantage that was supposed calculated to refine her taste, 
cultivate and expand her intellect, embellish her manners, 
and fit her to shine in the world, was placed within her 
reach. She was indeed a lovely young being. She had 
already interested the affections of one every way worthy 
of her. He was highly educated of an excellent moral 
character, and belonged to a family of great wealth, influ 
ence and respectability the very family who occupied 
the other pew of which I am soon to speak. But strong 
parental affection, high personal accomplishments the 
brightest prospects in life, and the warm attachment of a 
devoted lover, could not shield Susan from the power of 
disease, or the cold iron grasp of death. The long grass 
now waves over her grave, and her broken-hearted 
father lies by her side. Their large estate has been 


Reminiscences of the past. 

scattered to the winds and her mother resides in a dis 
tant part of the land a lonely widow. 

I have already alluded to a fourth pew in this sanctuary, 
whose occupants 1 had some twenty years before so often 

seen in this place of worship. Col. T held a proud 

place among the distinguished and influential men in 
Western New-York. He possessed all which wealth and 
high standing and extensive influence can impart to secure 
to himself and family the most unalloyed earthly enjoy 
ment. And I trust that he had something better than this, 
even that hope, which sheds light over the gloom and 
darkness of the grave. He and his family were regular 
attendants upon the service of the sanctuary. He had 
two sons whom he expected would inherit a portion of 
his property and perpetuate his name in the world. But 
the youngest to whom we have before alluded, did not 
long linger upon the shores of time, after he saw the ob 
ject of his young affections torn from him and swallowed 
up in the grave. His only surviving brother, in the very 
midst of life, shortly followed him. And soon his father 
and his mother were laid by his side. This is a picture 
a miniature picture of life ! Thus doth " the fashion of 
this world pass away !" What solemn testimony was 
before me, that " all flesh is grass, and all the goodliness 
thereof as the flower of the field." How emphatic then 
did the words of the prophet seem " The grass wither- 
eth, the flower fadeth ; because the Spirit of the Lord 
bloweth upon it : surely the people is grass." Not only 
had the flock changed but the pastor was also gone ! 
He who had instructed my youth who had led me to 
the Saviour who had first broken to me the sacramental 



Reminiscences of the past. 

bread, and given some of the first impulses to my prepa 
ration for the ministry no longer stood before that altar 
his voice was no longer heard in that sanctuary ! A 
simple marble slab placed in the recess behind the pulpit, 
told the melancholy tale that he too had gone to the spirit 

The account I have given you of my visit to this 
sanctuary, is so full of death I need scarcely take you to 
the village burial ground. It was a place, however, con 
secrated by the dust of too many dear friends for me to 
abstain from treading among its grass-covered and heaped 
hillocks of earth. This burial place, consisting of 
several acres of ground, enclosed by a neat pale, and 
shaded by shrubbery and trees, was located in the out 
skirts of the town, and at present, is seldom used for in 
terments. A solitary walk amid its graves brought up a 
long train of recollections of the past. How mournful, 
yet how sacred did I find the satisfaction of brushing 
away the long grass that had grown over the spot where 
reposed the mouldered ashes of one who gamboled with 
me amid the sports of childhood's careless hour, and 
rushed onward at my side in life's joyous course till 
youth was ripening into manhood, and then the barbed 
arrow of death met him, and he fell like a young, vigor 
ous, foliage-clad tree, struck by heaven's bolt, in all the 
freshness of his existence ! How mysterious and inscrut 
able did the ways of Providence appear to me as I trod 
down the tall weeds that had grown up around the grave 
of one who had been associated with me during a portion 
of my academical life, and who looked forward to the 

same profession with myself! C had one of the 

warmest and most amiable hearts that ever beat within 


Reminiscences of the past. 

the human bosom. He had faults of character, but they 
were all counterbalanced and lost amid the many excel 
lencies that distinguished him. He had long contended 
with poverty and discouragements of various kinds, in 
order to press his way towards the sacred ministry. 
After years of toil, and sacrifices of every kind, when he 
had just reached the goal, and was to be invested with 
the ministry of reconciliation, disease fastened upon his 
earthly tabernacle, and he sank down in death. No 
tender mother, nor kind sister was near to close his dying 
eyes. No family friends were present to follow his re 
mains to the tomb. There he lies in a lone spot, far from 
the home of his childhood, with the weeds grown up all 
around his grave, and few that pass by understand the full 
import of the simple inscription of the marble slab that 
marks the spot where his ashes repose ! 

And there too, amid the gathered crowd of the dead, 
was all that remained of the mortal part of one whose 
voice had been heard a hundred times amid those grounds 
repeating the solemn burial service of our Church. But 
years have passed away since that service was repeated 
over him. Well do I recollect the melancholy occasion, 
when the cold icy clod of winter fell upon his coffin, as 
the affecting words were pronounced " We commit 
his body to the ground : earth to earth ashes to ashes, 
dust to dust." I could not pass through those grounds 
without paying a visit to the grave of the buried minister, 
for he had not only shed spiritual light upon my path, but 
was united to me by the strong ties of kindred and blood. 
He was my own brother ! The grass was green over his 
grave ; for it had flourished there undisturbed for more 
than twelve years. 


Reminiscences of the past. 

But no spot in all that ground seemed so sacred, or so 
pregnant with power to awaken deep emotions and melt 
my soul into tenderness, as my mother's grave ! What a 
volume of past recollections does every visit to that grave 
call up ! What hallowed thoughts and sacred remem 
brances stand associated with the dust that slumbers in 
that narrow house ? Can I ever forget a sainted mother's 
love ! Can I ever forget the hour she took my tiny hand 
into her's and led me to a secret place there to pray for 
me and to teach me how to lift up my infant voice to the 
Creator of the skies ? Can I ever forget how each night 
and morning in childhood's happy days I knelt at her side 
to repeat " OUR FATHER ?" Can I ever forget how in my 
childish sorrows her voice soothed my distress, and her 
bright beaming smile spread a sunshine around my path ? 
Can I ever forget how, when sickness came upon me, 
and the scorchings of fever sent the blood boiling through 
my veins, she hung over me like a guardian angel laid 
her soft hand upon my burning brow, and night after night 
sat and watched by my pillow ? Can I ever forget that 
look of holy rapture and unutterable gratitude that lit up 
her countenance when the constraining love of Christ first 
led her unworthy child to go forward and take hold of 
the horns of the altar ? And above all, can I ever forget 
her prayers and solemn counsel, her holy trust in Christ 
and upward looking towards the summit of the everlast 
ing hills, when the icy hand of death was upon her, and 
her hold upon life was breaking away ? And could I 
stand by her grave, and not have these recollections come 
thronging upon me ? But I must stop. I had almost 
forgotten that I was writing for the eye of others. Did I 
not know that many into whose hands these remarks will 


Reminiscences of the past. 

fall, have also stood by a mother's grave, and thought 
and felt unutterable things, and will therefore appreciate the 
source and sacredness of these feelings to which I have 
been almost involuntarily led to give expression, I would 
immediately erase them from this sheet. 

But I have lingered over these scenes much longer 
than T intended. I had purposed to give you some ac 
count of an excursion I made to Palmyra and Lyons, 
two rising and beautiful villages located within sixteen 
miles of each other, at different points on the line of the 
great Erie Canal. The whole range of country from 
Geneva onward to these villages, and still farther north 
till we reach the shores washed by the waves of the broad 
Ontario, which expands before the eye like a great inland 
sea, is one of the richest and most beautiful farming dis 
tricts found in our country. This region, fourteen years 
ago, was the scene of my early missionary labours. It 
was then comparatively a new country. A change has 
come over the whole aspect of this agricultural district, 
and that within so limited a period, that it would almost 
seem to have been effected by the wand of enchantment. 
Edifices too for public worship have been raised, and the 
sound of the church-going bell is now heard in many 
places where a few years since all seemed like spiritual 
desolation. The Episcopal Church had neither exist 
ence nor local habitation in the county of Wayne fourteen 
years ago. An effort had been previously made at Pal 
myra to establish the Episcopal Church, but it proved 
abortive. Palmyra, Lyons, and Sodus, were the princi 
pal points where my early ministerial labours were 
bestowed. Here we organized churches, and in two 
places commenced rearing up houses of public worship. 


Reminiscences of the past. 

In each of these three places they now have a settled 
pastor. I spent a Sabbath most delightfully at Palmyra, 
preaching in the neat and tasteful church edifice erected 
there. Most deeply affecting was it to see among the 
serious and exemplary communicants of this church some 
who during my residence in that place were among the 
giddiest youth of the village. 

At Lyons they are building a beautiful stone Gothic 
Church which will be an ornament to the village, and 
highly creditable to those engaged in this enterprise. I 
have met with but few men, to whom upon so short an 
acquaintance, I have felt my heart more drawn than to the 
worthy young pastor placed over this congregation. His 
ministerial fidelity, attractive pulpit powers, and lovely 
Christian character seem to have attracted all hearts to 
wards him. Here too, was I delighted to find among the 
communicants some whom I had baptized in infancy. 





The golden Bible Moral, political, and numercial importance of 
the Mormon sect Views of Revelation Causes that have contributed 
to spread Mormonism Martin Harris Interview with the author 
Transcripts from the golden Bible Jo Smith, the Mormon prophet 
His early history First pretended revelation His marriage Chest 
containing the golden Bible Attempts to disinter it Consequence 
Delusion of Harris Translation and publication of the Book of 

THE sketch that follows, detailing some facts connected 
with the rise and origin of Mormonism, is made up partly 
of a series of letters written by the author in 1840 for the 
columns of the EPISCOPAL RECORDER, a religions periodical 
published in Philadelphia, of which he is one of the editors, 
and partly of facts and documents that have since come into 
his hands. 

The present chapter contains the substance of the first 
letter of the series referred to. 

Palmyra, Aug. 

I proceed to give some account of the rise and origin 
of the Mormon delusion, as I am now in the region 
where this imposture first sprung up. In the town of 
Manchester, about six miles from this place, may still be 



seen an excavation in the side of a hill, from whence, ac 
cording to the assertion of the Mormon prophet, the metallic 
plates, sometimes called THE GOLDEN, BIBLE, were disin 
terred. A writer in the NEW YORK EVENING EXPRESS, 
who has been recently travelling in the West, remarks that 
" the Mormons have assumed a moral and political im 
portance which is but very imperfectly understood." He 
then proceeds to add in relation to them that, *' associated on 
the religious principle, under a prophet and leader, whose 
mysterious and awful claims to divine inspiration make his 
voice to believers like the voice of God ; trained to sacri 
fice their individuality ; to utter one cry ; to think and act 
in crowds ; with minds that seem to have been struck from 
the sphere of reason on one subject; and left to wander 
like lost stars, amid the dark mazes and winding ways of 
religious error ; these remarkable sectaries must necessari 
ly hold in their hands a fearful balance of political power. 
In the midst of contending parties, a single hand might 
turn their influence, with tremendous effect, to which ever 
side presented the most potent attraction, and should they 
ever become disposed to exert their influence for evil, 
which may Heaven prevent, they would surround our 
institutions with an element of danger, more to be dreaded 
than an armed and hundred-eyed police." It is not, how 
ever, in reference to their political, but to their religious 
influence, that we entertain a degree of apprehension. 
This sect has been organized only about ten years, and 
yet they profess to number, in their society, one hundred 
thousand souls. This undoubtedly is an exaggeration, 
but it has been stated from a source upon which reliance 
can be placed, that there are probably not less than sixty 
thousand persons now professing the Mormon faith. I 



is said also that they are putting forth the most indefatiga 
ble efforts by itinerant missionaries, both in this country 
and in Europe, to make proselytes to their creed. These 
facts show the importance of spreading upon the columns 
of our religious journals from time to time statements that 
tend to unveil the trickery and artifice by which this sys 
tem of imposture was got up and continues to be per 

There are two or three reasons why the Mormon delu 
sion has spread so rapidly, and which will probably con 
tinue to give it more or less currency. 

One cause is, that it fully and cordially admits the truth 
of the sacred Scriptures. Did it discard all previous reve 
lation, pour contempt upon the Saviour of the world, and 
set up an independent claim for a revelation wholly new, 
it would have gained comparatively few adherents. But 
recognizing the truth and credibility of the sacred Scrip 
tures, and retaining as it does, many doctrines which are 
held in common by different denominations of Christians, 
and covering its own absurdities with imposing forms and 
lofty pretensions, it opens a winning asylum for all the 
disaffected and dissatisfied of other persuasions, and con 
tains much that is congenial to almost every shade of radi 
calism, or erratic religions character. 

Another cause which has contributed to the rapid spread 
of this imposture, is, that it appeals strongly to the love of 
the marvellous, to that thirst and anxiety, so rife with a 
certain class of mind, to know more than God would have 
us know, to find some discovery that will carry us farther 
than revelation, to get some one to come back from the 
grave, and tell us what is in eternity, to see with our 
own eyes a miracle, and obtain some new glimpse of the 



invisible world. There is manifestly existing in a certain 
order of men, in every part of the world, and in every 
period of time, a strong propensity of this sort. What 
but this propensity would have given such potent and al 
most irresistible influence to Joan d? rfrc, who, from an 
ostler maid in an obscure country inn in France, by claim 
ing heavenly inspirations, and pretending to see visions, 
and to hear divine voices calling her to re-establish the 
throne of France, and to expel the foreign invaders, rose 
to such surprising eminence and power, as to be the very 
pivot upon which the destinies of the whole nation turned ! 
as to be invested with the military conduct of the French 
army, directing and raising sieges, inspiring the troops 
with invincible courage, and spreading disaster and defeat 
through all the ranks of the British army, so that the Duke 
of Bedford, after all the previous success and triumph of 
the English arms at Verneuil and Orleans, and with all his 
tact and ability, could scarcely keep any footing in France ? 
What but this deep-rooted propensity could have prepared 
men to have received the dreams, and reveries, and pre 
tended revelation of Emanuel Swedenborg, or of Ann Lee ; 
or to have yielded up their reason to a belief in the clair 
voyance of animal magnetism ? And not to multiply in 
stances abroad, what but such a propensity as the one to 
which we have now referred, attracted the New Jerusa- 
lemites around Jemima Wilkinson, and gave her so much 
power over a large community of men and women ? 
What but this, opened the way for the monstrous claims 
set up by the execrable Mathias, who drew after him, as 
by the power of enchantment, and subjected to his dictum, 
whole families, persons of education and refinement, and 
among the number, several men of intelligence, respecta- 



bility and fortune? It is to this same principle, this 
anxious desire to look deeper into the hidden mysteries of 
the invisible world, than any mortal has hitherto been pri 
vileged to do, that the originators of this ** cunningly de 
vised fable" of Mormonism have appealed. While they 
admit the truth and credibility of the sacred Scriptures, 
they profess to have obtained an additional revelation, by 
which new illumination, is shed over every page of the 
sacred word, all controversies settled, and the obscurity 
that hitherto hung over many religious subjects dispel 
led. They profess to bring to light a historical and re 
ligious record, written in ancient times, by a branch of the 
house of Israel that peopled America, from whom the In 
dians are descended. This record, which, engraven upon 
metallic plates, lay deposited in the earth for many centu 
ries, not only corroborates and confirms the truth of holy 
writ, but also opens the events of ancient America, as far 
back at least as the flood. They pretend that this record 
" pours the light of noon-day upon the history of a nation 
whose mounds and cities, and fortifications, still repose in 
grand but melancholy ruins, upon the bosom of the western 
prairies." The Mormons not only claim this new revela 
tion, but profess to have still among them the gift of pro 
phecy and miracles. They contend that miracles and re 
velations from heaven, are as necessary now, and as im 
portant to the salvation of the present generation, as they 
were in any former period, and that they alone possess 
this privilege of immediate and constant intercourse with 

But that which has given vastly the greatest strength to 
Mormonism is the violent persecution which its disciples 
have suffered in the West, and especially in Missouri. 



Nothing can be more impolitic, or unjust, or farther re 
moved from the spirit of the gospel, than to oppress and 
persecute any set of men on account of their religious 
tenets ; and certainly nothing can give them more strength 
or rapid growth than such a procedure. 

The Mormons first located themselves, as a body, in 
Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio. Some difference arose 
among their leaders on account of certain banking opera 
tions which they attempted, and they separated, and a 
portion of them went to Independence, Jackson Co., Mo. 
The people in the neighbourhood of that location became 
unfriendly to them, and drove them away by force, sub 
jecting them to great sufferings and loss of property. 
They were at last entirely and forcibly expelled from the 
state of Missouri. They afterward purchased the town of 
Commerce, said to be a situation of surpassing beauty, at 
the head of the lower rapids on the Illinois shore of the 
Mississippi river. The writer to whom I have already 
referred, and who has revisited these western Mormons 
this present summer, remarks : " The name of the place 
where they now reside, they have recently changed to 
Nauvoo, the Hebrew term for fair or beautiful. Around 
this place, as their centre, they are daily gathering from 
almost every quarter : and several hundred new houses, 
erected within the last few months, attest to the passing 
traveller the energy, industry, and self-denial with which 
the community is imbued. They have also obtained pos 
session of extensive lands on the opposite side of the river, 
in that charming portion of Iowa Territory, known as the 
' Half Breed Reservation ;' and there upon the rolling and 
fertile prairies they are rapidly selecting their homes and 
opening their farms. As the traveller now passes through 



those natural parks and fields of flowers which the hand 
of the Creator seems to have originally planted there for 
the inspection of his own eye, he beholds their cabins, 
dotted down in most enchanting perspective, either on 
the borders of the timbers, or beside the springs and 
streams of living water which are interspersed on every 

The other portion that remain in Ohio, have erected a 
stone temple in Kirtland, of splendid appearance and sin 
gular construction. The first floor is a place of worship, 
with four pulpits at each end ; each pulpit calculated to 
hold three persons. These pulpits rise behind and above 
one another, and are designed for different grades of min 
isters according to their rank in office. These are the two 
principal settlements of these people, although there are 
small societies of them found in almost every part of the 
United States. In some instances not only members but 
ministers of orthodox churches have been led to leave 
their own churches, and identify themselves with the 

It is time that I should acquaint you with some facts 
that came to my personal knowledge full thirteen years 
ago, connected with the rise of this imposture. 

It was early in the autumn of 1827 that Martin Harris 
called at my house in Palmyra, one morning about sunrise. 
His whole appearance indicated more than usual excite 
ment, and he had scarcely passed the threshold of my 
dwelling, before he inquired whether he could see me 
alone, remarking that he had a matter to communicate that 
he wished to be strictly confidential. Previous to this, 1 
had but very slight acquaintance with Mr. Harris. He 
had occasionally attended divine service in our church. 1 



had heard him spoken of as a farmer in comfortable cir 
cumstances, residing in the country a short distance from 
the village, and distinguished by certain peculiarities of 
character. He had been, if I mistake not, at one period, 
a member of the Methodist Church, and subsequently had 
identified himself with the Universalists. At this time, 
however, in his religious views he seemed to be floating 
upon the sea of uncertainty. He had evidently quite an 
extensive knowledge of the Scriptures, and possessed a 
manifest disputatious turn of mind. As I subsequently 
learned, Mr. Harris had always been a firm believer in 
dreams, and visions, and supernatural appearances, such 
as apparitions and ghosts, and therefore was a fit subject 
for such men as Smith and his colleagues to operate upon. 
On the occasion just referred to, I invited him to accom 
pany me to my study, where, after having closed the door, 
he began to draw a package out of his pocket with great 
and manifest caution. Suddenly, however, he stopped, 
and wished to know if there was any possibility of our 
being interrupted or overheard ? When answered in the 
negative, he proceeded to remark, that he reposed great 
confidence in me as a minister of Jesus Christ, and that 
what he had now to communicate he wished me to regard 
as strictly confidential. He said he verily believed that an 
important epoch had arrived that a great flood of light 
was about to burst upon the world, and that the scene of 
divine manifestation was to be immediately around us. In 
explanation of what he meant, he then proceeded to re 
mark that a GOLDEN BIBLE had recently been dug from the 
earth, where it had been deposited for thousands of years, 
and that this would be found to contain such disclosures 
as would settle all religious controversies and speedily 



bring on the glorious millennium. That this mysterious 
book, which no human eye of the present generation had 
yet seen, was in the possession of Joseph Smith, jr., ordi 
narily known in the neighbourhood under the more familiar 
designation of Jo Smith; that there had been a revelation 
made to him by which he had discovered this sacred depo 
sit, and two transparent stones, through which, as a sort 
of spectacles, he could read the Bible, although the box or 
ark that contained it, had not yet been opened ; and that 
by looking through those mysterious stones, he had tran 
scribed from one of the leaves of this book, the characters 
which Harris had so carefully wrapped in the package 
which he was drawing from his pocket. The whole thing 
appeared to me so ludicrous and puerile, that I could not 
refrain from telling Mr. Harris, that I believed it a mere 
hoax got up to practice upon his credulity, or an artifice 
to extort from him money; for I had already, in the course 
of the conversation, learned that he had advanced some 
twenty-five dollars to Jo Smith as a sort of premium for 
sharing with him in the glories and profits of this new 
revelation. For at this time, his mind seemed to be quite 
as intent upon the pecuniary advantage that would arise 
from the possession of the plates of solid gold of which 
this book was composed, as upon the spiritual light it 
would diffuse over the world. My intimations to him, in 
reference to the possible imposition that was being prac 
ticed upon him, however, were indignantly repelled. He 
then went on to relate the particulars in regard to the dis 
covery and possession of this marvellous book. As far as 
I can now recollect, the following was an outline of the 
narrative which he then communicated to me, and subse 
quently to scores of people in the village, from some of 



whom in my late visit to Palmyra, I have been able to 
recall several particulars that had quite glided from my 

Before I proceed to Martin's narrative, however, I would 
remark in passing, that Jo Smith, who has since been the 
chief prophet of the Mormons, and was one of the most 
prominent ostensible actors in the first scenes of this 
drama, belonged to a very shiftless family near Palmyra. 
They lived a sort of vagrant life, and were principally 
known as money -diggers. Jo from a boy appeared dull 
and utterly destitute of genius ; but his father claimed for 
him a sort of second sight, a power to look into the depths 
of the earth, and discover where its precious treasures were 
hid. Consequently long before the idea of a GOLDEN 
BIBLE entered their minds, in their excursions for money- 
digging, which I believe usually occurred in the night, that 
they might conceal from others the knowledge of the place 
where they struck upon treasures, Jo used to be usually 
their guide, putting into a hat a peculiar stone he had 
through which he looked to decide where they should be 
gin to dig. 

According to Martin Harris, it was after one of these 
night excursions, that Jo, while he lay upon his bed, had 
a remarkable dream. An angel of God seemed to ap 
proach him, clad in celestial splendor. This divine mes 
senger assured him, that he, Joseph Smith, was chosen of 
the Lord to be a prophet of the Most High God, and to 
bring to light hidden things, that would prove of unspeaka 
ble benefit to the world. He then disclosed to him the 
existence of this golden Bible, and the place where it was 
deposited but at the same time told him that he must fol 
low implicitly the divine direction, or he would draw 



down upon him the wrath of heaven. This book, which 
was contained in a chest, or ark, and which consisted of 
metallic plates covered with characters embossed in gold, 
he must not presume to look into, under three years. He 
must first go on a journey into Pennsylvania and there 
among the mountains, he would meet with a very lovely 
woman, belonging to a highly respectable and pious family, 
whom he was to take for his wife. As a proof that he 
was sent on this mission by Jehovah, as soon as he saw 
this designated person, he would be smitten with her 
beauty, and though he was a stranger to her, as she was 
far above him in the walks of life, she would at once be 
willing to marry him and go with him to the ends of the 
earth. After their marriage he was to return to his former 
home, and remain quietly there until the birth of his first 
child. When this child had completed his second year, 
he might then proceed to the hill beneath which the mys 
terious chest was deposited, and draw it thence, and pub 
lish the truths it contained to the world. Smith awoke 
from his dream, and, according to Harris, started off to 
wards Pennsylvania, not knowing to what point he should 
go. But the Lord directed him, and gained him favour 
in the eyes of just such a person as was described to him. 
He was married and had returned. His first child had 
been born, and was now about six months old. But Jo 
had not been altogether obedient to the heavenly vision. 
After his marriage and return from Pennsylvania, he be 
came so awfully impressed with the high destiny that 
awaited him, that he communicated the secret to his father 
and family. The money-digging propensity of the old 
man operated so powerfully, that he insisted upon it that 
hey should go and dig and see if the chest was there 



not with any view to remove it till the appointed time, but 
merely to satisfy themselves. Accordingly they went 
forth in the stillness of the night with their spades and 
mattocks to the spot where slumbered this sacred deposit. 
They had proceeded but a little while in the work of ex 
cavation, before the mysterious chest appeared ; but lo ! 
instantly it moved and glided along out of their sight. 
Directed, however, by the clairvoyance of Jo, they again 
penetrated to the spot where it stood, and succeeded in 
gaining a partial view of its dimensions. But while they 
were pressing forward to gaze at it, the thunder of the 
Almighty shook the spot, and made the earth to tremble 
a sheet of vivid lightning swept along over the side of the 
hill, and burnt terribly around the place where the exca 
vation was going on, and again, with a rumbling noise, the 
chest moved off out of their sight. They were all terrified 
and fled towards their home. Jo took his course silently 
along by himself. On his way homeward, being alone 
and in the woods, the angel of the Lord met him, clad in 
terror and wrath. He spoke in a voice of thunder: forked 
lightnings shot through the trees, and ran along upon the 
ground. The terror which the appearance of the divine 
messenger awakened, instantly struck Smith to the earth, 
and he felt his whole frame convulsed with agony, as 
though he were stamped upon by the iron hoofs of death 
himself. In language most terrific did the angel upbraid 
him for his disobedience, and then disappeared. Smith 
went home trembling and full of terror. Soon, however, 
his mind became more composed. Another divine com 
munication was made to him, authorizing him to go alone 
by himself and bring the chest and deposit it secretly un 
der the hearth of his dwelling, but by no means to attempt 



to look into it. The reason assigned by the angel for this 
removal, was that some report in relation to the place 
where this sacred book was deposited had gone forth, and 
there was danger of its being disturbed. According to 
Harris, Smith now scrupulously followed the divine direc 
tions. He was already in possession of the two transpa 
rent stones laid up with the GOLDEN BIBLE, by looking 
through which he was enabled to read the golden letters 
on the plates in the box. How he obtained these specta 
cles without opening the chest, Harris could not tell. But 
still he had them ; and by means of them he could read all 
the book contained. The book itself was not to be dis 
closed until Smith's child had attained a certain age. 
Then it might be published to the world. In the interim, 
Smith was to prepare the way for the conversion of the 
world to a new system of faith, by transcribing the cha 
racters from the plates and giving translations of the same. 
This was the substance of Martin Harris' communication 
to me upon our first interview. He then carefully unfold 
ed a slip of paper, which contained three or four lines of 
characters, as unlike letters or hieroglyphics of any sort, 
as well could be produced were one to shut up his eyes 
and play off the most antic movements with his pen upon 
paper. The only thing that bore the slightest resemblance 
to the letter of any language that I had ever seen, was two 
upright marks joined by a horizontal line, that might have 
been taken for the Hebrew character J^. My ignorance of 
the characters in which this pretended ancient record was 
written, was to Martin Harris new proof that Smith's 
whole account of the divine revelation made to him was 
entirely to be relied on. 

One thing is here to be noticed, that the statements of 



the originators of this imposture varied, and were modified 
from time to time according as their plans became more 
matured. At first it was a gold Bible then golden plates 
engraved then metallic plates stereotyped or embossed 
with golden letters. At one time Harris was to be en 
riched by the solid gold of these plates, at another they 
were to be religiously kept to convince the world of the 
truth of the revelation and, then these plates could not be 
seen by any but three witnesses whom the Lord should 
choose. How easy it would be, were there any such 
plates in existence, to produce them, and to show that 
Mormonism is not a " cunningly devised fable." How far 
Harris was duped by this imposture, or how far he entered 
into it as a matter of speculation, I am unable to say. 
Several gentlemen in Palmyra, who saw and conversed 
with him frequently, think he was labouring under a sort 
of monomania, and that he thoroughly believed all that Jo 
Smith chose to tell him on this subject. He was so much 
in earnest on this subject, that he immediately started off 
with some of the manuscripts that Smith furnished him on 
a journey to New York and Washington to consult some 
learned men to ascertain the nature of the language in 
which this record was engraven. After his return he came 
to see me again, and told me that, among others, he had 
consulted Professor Anthon,* who thought the characters in 
which the book was written very remarkable, but he could 
not decide exactly what language they belonged to. Mar 
tin had now become a perfect believer. He said he had 
no more doubt of Smith's commission, than of the divine 

* In the following chapter the reader will find an account of this 




commission of the apostles. The very fact that Smith was 
an obscure and illiterate man, showed that he must be act 
ing under divine impulses: " God had chosen the foolish 
things of the world to confound the wise, and the weak 
things to confound the mighty ; and base things of the 
world, and things which are despised yea, and things that 
are not to bring to nought things that are that no flesh 
should glory in his presence :" that he was willing to 
" take of the spoiling of his goods" to sustain Smith in 
carrying on this work of the Lord ; and that he was deter 
mined that the book should be published, though it consum 
ed all his worldly substance. It was in vain I endeavoured 
to expostulate. I was an unbeliever, and could not see afar 
off. As for him, he must follow the light which the Lord 
had given him. Whether at this time Smith had those col 
leagues that unquestionably afterwards moved, unseen, the 
wheels of this machinery, I am unable to say. Even after 
Cowdery and Rigdon were lending the whole force of 
their minds to the carrying out of this imposture, Jo Smith 
continued to be the ostensible prominent actor in the 
drama. The way that Smith made his transcripts and 
translations for Harris was the following. Although in the 
same room, a thick curtain or blanket was suspended be 
tween them, and Smith concealed behind the blanket, pre 
tended to look through his spectacles, or transparent 
stones, and would then write down or repeat what he saw, 
which, when repeated aloud, was written down by Harris, 
who sat on the other side of the suspended blanket. Har 
ris was told that it would arouse the most terrible divine 
displeasure, if he should attempt to draw near the sacred 
ehest, or look at Smith while engaged in the work of de- 
cyphering the mysterious characters. This was Harris's 



own account of the matter to me. What other measures 
they afterwards took to transcribe or translate from these 
metallic plates, I cannot say, as I very soon after this re 
moved to another field of labour where I heard no more of 
this matter till I learned the BOOK OF MORMON was about 
being published. It was not till after the discovery of the 
manuscript of Mr. Spaulding, of which I shall subsequently 
give some account, that the actors in this imposture 
thought of calling this pretended revelation the BOOK or 
MORMON. This book, which professed to be a translation 
of the golden Bible brought to light by Joseph Smith, was 
published in 1830 to accomplish which Martin Harris 
actually mortgaged his farm. 

In addition to the facts with which I myself was con 
versant in 1827 and 1828, connected with the rise of Mor 
monism, I have been able to lay hold of one or two valua 
ble documents, and to obtain several items of intelligence, 
by which I shall be enabled to continue this sketch of the 
rise and origin of this singular imposture. To my mind 
there never was a grosser piece of deception undertaken 
to be practised than this. 





The circumstances that led to this letter Martin Harris His visit 
to New York Interview with Dr. Mitchell Professor Anthon. 

A FEW months subsequent to the publishing of the fore 
going letter, the author saw in the columns of the Church 
Record a letter from Professor Anthon which singularly 
corroborated the statement that Martin Harris made to him 
in relation to his having had an interview with that gentle 
man, when on his first mission to New York in quest 
of some interpreter who should be able to decipher the 
mysterious characters of the golden Bible. The cause 
which drew forth the letter from the learned professor is 
thus stated. The Rev. Dr. Coit, Rector of Trinity Church, 
New Rochelle, West Chester county, N. Y., hearing that 
the Mormons in that place for there is scarcely a town 
or village where some of them are not found, " were claim 
ing the patronage of Professor Anthon's name, in behalf of 
their notions, took the liberty to state the fact to him, and 
ask in what possible way they had contrived to associate 
him with themselves." In reply to this inquiry, Professor 
Anthon wrote the letter above referred to which we here 
insert : 



New- York, April 3d, 1841. 

I have often heard that the Mormons claimed me for an 
auxiliary, but, as no one, until the present time, has ever 
requested from me a statement in writing, I have not 
deemed it worth while to say any thing publicly on the 
subject. What I do know of the sect relates to some of 
their early movements ; and as the facts may amuse you, 
while they will furnish a satisfactory answer to the charge 
of my being a Mormon proselyte, I proceed to lay them 
before you in detail. 

Many years ago, the precise date I do not now recollect, 
a plain looking countryman called upon me with a letter 
from Dr. Samuel L. Mitchell requesting me to examine, 
and give my opinion upon, a certain paper, marked with 
various characters which the Doctor confessed he could not 
decypher, and which the bearer of the note was very 
anxious to have explained. A very brief examination of 
the paper convinced me that it was a mere hoax, and a 
very clumsy one too. The characters were arranged in 
columns, like the Chinese mode of writing, and presented 
the most singular medley that I ever beheld. Greek, He 
brew, and all sorts of letters, more or less distorted, either 
through unskilfulness, or from actual design, were inter 
mingled with sundry delineations of half moons, stars, and 
other natural objects, and the whole ended in a rude repre 
sentation of the Mexican zodiac. The conclusion was 
irresistible, that some cunning fellow had prepared the 
paper in question, for the purpose of imposing upon the 
countryman who brought it, and I told the man so without 
any hesitation. He then proceeded to give me a history 
of the whole affair, which convinced me that he had fallen 



into the hands of some sharper, while it left me in great 
astonishment at his own simplicity. 

The countryman told me that a gold book had been re 
cently dug up in the western or northern part (I forget 
which), of our state, and he described this book as consist 
ing of many gold plates, like leaves, secured by a gold 
wire passing through the edge of each, just as the leaves of 
a book are sewed together, and presented in this way the 
appearance of a volume. Each plate, according to him, 
was inscribed with unknown characters, and the paper 
which he handed me, a transcript of one of these pages. 
On my asking him by whom the copy was made, he 
gravely stated, that along with the golden book there had 
been dug up a very large pair of spectacles ! so large in 
fact that if a man were to hold them in front of his face, his 
two eyes would merely look through one of the glasses, 
and the remaining part of the spectacles would project a 
considerable distance sideways! These spectacles pos 
sessed, it seems a very valuable property, of enabling any 
one who looked through them, (or rather through one of 
the lenses,) not only to decypher the characters on the 
plates, but also to comprehend their exact meaning, and 
be able to translate them ! ! My informant assured me that 
this curious property of the spectacles had been actually 
tested, and found to be true. A young man, it seems, had 
been placed in the garret of a farm-house, with a curtain 
before him, and having fastened the spectacles to his head, 
had read several pages in the golden book, and communi 
cated their contents in writing to certain persons stationed 
on the outside of the curtain. He had also copied off one 
page of the book in the original character, which he had 
in like manner handed over to those who were separated 



from him by the curtain, and this copy was the paper 
which the countryman had brought with him. As the 
golden book was said to contain very great truths, and most 
important revelations of a religious nature, a strong desire 
had been expressed by several persons in the countryman's 
neighbourhood, to have the whole work translated and 
published. A proposition had accordingly been made to 
my informant, to sell his farm, and apply the proceeds to 
the printing of the golden book, and the golden plates 
were to be left with him as security until he should be re 
imbursed by the sale of the work. To convince him 
more clearly that there was no risk whatever in the mat 
ter, and that the work was actually what it claimed to be, 
he was told to take the paper, which purported to be a 
copy of one of the pages of the book, to the city of New 
York, and submit it to the learned in that quarter, who 
would soon dispel all his doubts, and satisfy him as to the 
perfect safety of the investment. As Dr. Mitchell was our 
*' Magnus Apollo" in those days, the man called first upon 
him; but the Doctor, evidently suspecting some trick, 
declined giving any opinion about the matter, and sent the 
countryman down to the college, to see, in all probability, 
what the "learned pundits" in that place would make of 
the affair. On my telling the bearer of the paper that an 
attempt had been made to impose on him, and defraud him 
of his property, he requested me to give him my opinion 
in writing about the paper which he had shown to me. I 
did so without any hesitation, partly for the man's sake, 
and partly to let the individual " behind the curtain" see 
that his trick was discovered. The import of what I 
wrote was, as far as I can now recollect, simply this, that 
the marks in the paper appeared to be merely an imitation 



of various alphabetical characters, and had, in my opinion, 
no meaning at all connected with them. The countryman 
then took his leave, with many thanks, and with the ex 
press declaration that he would in no shape part with his 
farm or embark in the speculation of printing the golden 

The matter rested here for a considerable time, until 
one day, when I had ceased entirely to think of the 
countryman and his paper, this same individual, to my 
great surprise, paid me a second visit. He now brought 
with him a duodecimo volume, which he said was a 
translation into English of the " Golden Bible." He also 
stated, that notwithstanding his original determination not 
to sell his farm, he had been induced eventually to do so, 
and apply the money to the publication of the book, and 
had received the golden plates as a security for repay 
ment. He begged my acceptance of the volume, assuring 
me that it would be found extremely interesting, and that 
it was already " making a great noise" in the upper part of 
the state. Suspecting now that some serious trick was on 
foot, and that my plain looking visitor might be in fact a 
very cunning fellow I declined his present, and merely 
contented myself with a slight examination of the volume 
while he stood by. The more I declined receiving it 
however, the more urgent the man became in offering the 
book, until at last I told him plainly, that if he left the 
volume, as he said he intended to do, I should most as 
suredly throw it after him as he departed. I then asked 
him how he could be so foolish as to sell his farm 
and engage in this affair ; and requested him to tell me if 
the plates were really of gold. In answer to this latter 
inquiry, he said that he had never seen the plates them. 



selves, which were carefully locked up in a trunk, but that 
he had the trunk in his possession. I advised him by all 
means to open the trunk and examine the contents, and 
if the plates proved to be of gold, which I did not believe 
at all, to sell them immediately. His reply was, that if he 
opened the trunk the " curse of heaven would descend 
upon him and his children. 11 " However," added he, 
" I will agree to open it, provided you will take the 
* curse of Heaven' upon yourself for having advised me to 
the step." I told him I was perfectly willing to do so, 
and begged he would hasten home and examine the trunk, 
for he would find he had been cheated. He promised to 
do as I recommended, and left me, taking his book with 
him. I have never seen him since. 

Such is a plain statement of all that I know respecting 
the Mormons. My impression now is, that the plain 
looking countryman was none other than the prophet 
Smith himself, who assumed an appearance of great 
simplicity in order to entrap me, if possible, into some 
recommendation of his book. That the prophet aided me 
by his inspiration, in interpreting the volume, is only one 
of the many amusing falsehoods which the Mormonites 
utter relative to my participation in their doctrines. Of 
these doctrines I know nothing whatever, nor have I ever 
heard a single discourse from any one of their preachers, 
although I have often felt a strong curiosity to become an 
auditor, since my friends tell me that they frequently name 
me in their sermons, and even go so far as to say that I 
am alluded to in the prophecies of Scripture ! 

If what I have here written shall prove of any service 
in opening the eyes of some of their deluded followers to 
the real designs of those who profess to be the apostles 



of Mormonism, it will afford me a satisfaction, equalled, 
I have no doubt only by that which you yourself will 
feel on this subject. 

I remain very respectfully and truly, your friend, 


Rev. Dr. Coit, New Rochelle, N. Y. 

It will be seen that in the main this tallies exceedingly 
well with what Harris told the author, in relation to the 
fact of his interview with Professor Anthon. He kept 
back in his account of the interview all allusion to the 
discouragements which the Professor threw upon his 
enterprise. There can be no doubt but that the person 
who waited upon Professor Anthon in the manner above 
stated, was Martin Harris. 





The origin of the Book of Mormon The statement of Mr. Isaac 
Hall, father in law of the Mormon Prophet Rev. Mr. Spaulding's 
Historical Romance Mrs. Davison's statement The blindness of 
Martin Harris Testimony of the three witnesses The eight 

THE communication which follows is the second in the 
series of letters referred to in a former chapter. 

F airfield, August 31, 1840. 

According to the intimation given in my last, I proceed 
to furnish you with some further facts in relation to the 
origin and history of Mormonism. In developing the 
history of this imposture, and showing the several steps 
by which it has won its way to the regard, and gained the 
confidence of thousands, it may seem desirable to furnish 
some account of what is denominated THE BOOK OF MOR 
MON a volume containing 588 duodecimo pages, consist 
ing of fifteen different books, purporting to be written at 
different times, and by different authors, whose names 
they respectively bear. The period of time which these 
historical records profess to cover, is about a thousand 
years commencing with the time of Zedekiah, king of 
Judah, and terminating with the year of our Lord 420. 



This volume, as I have already intimated, has exerted a 
most important influence in giving some plausibility to the 
claims set up by the originators of the Mormon impos 
ture. I am quite confident there never would have been 
any permanent converts to Mormonism, had not this 
volume been ushered into existence. The story of the 
GOLDEN BIBLE, like a thousand previous and no less 
marvellous tales told by Jo Smith, would have long since 
sunk into oblivion but for the publication of this book. 
The origin of this volume how it came into being is a 
grave question. The general impression is that neither 
Jo Smith nor Martin Harris had intelligence or literary 
qualification adequate to the production of a work of this 
sort. Of the correctness of this impression, however, I 
am not quite confident. The subsequent career of Smith 
has shown that he possesses great tact, and cunning. 
The authorship of this volume is a question of some 
interest. The Mormons say that it is a revelation from 
God. They claim for it a divine character. They say 
that the successive narratives spread upon the pages of 
this volume, are the identical records engraven upon the 
metallic plates to which we have already referred, and 
which, like the leaves of a book, were deposited in a box 
and hid in the earth ; that the writing on these plates was 
in " the Reformed Egyptian language'" that Joseph 
Smith was directed by an angel to the spot where this 
sacred deposit lay ; and subsequently inspired to interpret 
the writing, by putting two smooth flat stones, which he 
found in the box, into a hat, and then putting his face 
therein. This is the claim set up for the BOOK OF 
MORMON, and which has seduced many unstable souls. 

Had the originator of this fabulous history, called the 



BOOK OF MORMON, kept entirely behind the scenes up to 
the present period, and had there been no clue by which 
the authorship of this figment of the imagination could be 
traced, it would still have been abundantly evident to every 
intelligent person, that it was the product of some shrewd 
and designing mind, who calculated to find his advantage 
in gulling the credulous and superstitious. The people of 
Palmyra, at the commencement of the printing of this 
book, only laughed at the ridiculousness of the thing, and 
wondered at the credulity of Harris. As the publication 
progressed, and the contents of the book began to be 
known, the conviction became general that there was an 
actor behind the scene, moving the machinery, of far 
higher intellectual qualifications than Smith or Harris. 
Suspicion in some degree rested upon a man by the name 
of Cowdery, who had formerly been a school teacher, if I 
mistake not, and was now known to be in some way con 
nected with Smith in preparing this volume for the press. 
I will here insert a document which I have in my 
hands, and which may tend to throw some light upon the 
origin and authorship of the Book of Mormon, which I 
found in a little work, entitled " RELIGIOUS CREEDS AND 
STATISTICS." The author gives a brief sketch of Mor 
monism, and among other things inserts a letter or state 
ment written by Isaac Hale, the father-in-law of Jo Smith, 
giving some account of his first acquaintance with Smith. 
I had, previously to meeting with this letter, felt anxious 
to obtain some facts in relation to Smith's marriage, in or 
der to ascertain how those facts would agree with the state 
ments made by him to Martin Harris, which I noticed in 
my last letter. While at Palmyra, I met with a respecta 
ble clergyman of the Episcopal Church, who had formerly 



belonged to the Methodist connection, that was acquainted 
with Mr. Hale. He represented him to be a distinguished 
hunter, living near the Great Bend in Pennsylvania. He 
was professedly a religious man and a very zealous mem 
ber of the Methodist Church. The letter to which I 
have referred, is accompanied with a statement, declaring 
that Mr. Hale resides in Harmony, Penn : appended to 
the letter also is Mr. Hale's affirmation or affidavit of the 
truth of the statement there made, taken before Charles 
Dimorii Justice of the Peace ; and there is also subjoined 
the certificate of William Thompson and Davis Dimock, 
Associate Judges of the Court of Common Pleas in the 
County of Susquehanna, declaring that ** they have for 
many years been personally acquainted with Isaac Hale 
of Harmony Township, who has attested the foregoing 
statement, or letter, and that he is a man of excellent 
moral character, and of undoubted veracity." 

The letter or statement above referred to, is as follows : 
" I first became acquainted with Joseph Smith, Jr., in 
Nov. 1825. He was at that time in the employ of a set 
of men who were called "money-diggers ;" and his occu 
pation was that of seeing, or pretending to see, by means 
of a stone placed in his hat, and his hat closed over his 
face. In this way he pretended to discover minerals and 
hidden treasure. His appearance at this time, was that of 
a careless young man, not very well educated, and very 
saucy and insolent to his father. Smith and his father, 
with several other * money-diggers," boarded at my 
house while they were employed in digging for a mine 
that they supposed had been opened and worked by the 
Spaniards, many years since. Young Smith gave the 
" money-diggers" great encouragement at first, but when 



they had arrived in digging to near the place where he 
had stated an immense treasure would be found, he said the 
enchantment was so powerful that he could not see. They 
then became discouraged, and soon after dispersed. 

After these occurrences, young Smith made several 
visits at my house, and at length asked my consent to 
marry my daughter Emma. This I refused, and gave 
him my reasons for so doing ; some of which were, that 
he was a stranger, and followed a business that I could not 
approve. He then left the place. Not long after this, he 
returned : and while I was absent from home, carried off 
my daughter into the State of New York, where they 
were married without my approbation, or consent. After 
they had arrived at Palmyra, N. Y., Emma wrote to me, 
inquiring whether she could have her property, consisting 
of clothing, &c. I replied that her property was safe, and 
at her disposal. In a short time they returned, bringing 
with them a Peter Ingersol, and subsequently came to the 
conclusion that they would move out, and reside upon a 
place near my residence. 

Smith stated to me that he gad given up what he called 
" glass-looking," and that he expected to work hard for a 
living, and was willing to do so. Soon after this, I was 
informed they had brought a wonderful book of plates 
down with them. I was shown a box, in which it is said 
they were contained, which had, to all appearance, been 
used as a glass box, of the common sized window glass. 
I was allowed to feel the weight of the box, and they gave 
me to understand, that the book of plates was then in the 
box : into which, however, I was not allowed to look. I 
inquired of Joseph Smith, Jr., who was to be the first that 



would be allowed to see the book of plates ? He said, it 
was a young child. 

After this, I became dissatisfied, and informed him, that 
if there was any thing in my house of that description, 
which I could not be allowed to see, he must take it away ; 
if he did not, I was determined to see it. After that, the 
plates were said to be hid in the woods. 

About this time, Martin Harris made his appearance 
upon the stage ; and Smith began to interpret the charac 
ters or hieroglyphics, which he said were engraven upon 
the plates, while Harris wrote down the interpretation. 

It was said that Harris wrote down one hundred and 
sixteen pages, and lost them. Soon after this happened, 
Martin Harris informed me that he must have a greater 
witness, and said that he had talked with Joseph about it; 
Joseph informed him that he could not or durst not show 
him the plates, but that he, (Joseph,) would go into the 
woods where the book of plates was, and that after he 
came back, Harris should follow his track in the snow, and 
find the book, and examine it for himself. Harris informed 
me afterwards, that he followed Smith's directions, and 
could not find the plates, and was still dissatisfied. 

The next day after this happened, I went to the house 
where Joseph Smith, jr., lived, and where he and Harris 
were engaged in their translation of the book. Each of 
them had a written piece of paper which they were com 
paring, and some of the words were " My servant seek- 
eth a greater witness, but no greater witness can be given 
to him." There was also something said about " three 
that were to see the thing;" meaning, I supposed, the 
book of plates ; and that " if the three did not go exactly 
according to orders, the thing would be taken from them." 



1 inquired whose words they were, and was informed by 
Joseph or Emma, (I rather think it was the former,) that 
they were the words of Jesus Christ. I told them then, that I 
considered the whole of it a delusion, and advised them 
to abandon it. The manner in which he pretended to 
read and interpret, was the same as when he looked for 
the money-diggers, with the stone in his hat, and his hat 
over his face, while the book of plates was at the same 
time hid in the woods ! 

After this, Martin Harris went away, and Oliver Cow- 
dery came and wrote for Smith, while he interpreted, as 
above described. This is the same Oliver Cowdery whose 
name may be found in the book of Mormon. Cowdery 
continued a scribe for Smith, until the book of Mormon 
was completed, as I supposed, and understood. 

Joseph Smith, jr., resided near me for some time after 
this, and I had a good opportunity of becoming acquainted 
with him, and somewhat acquainted with his associates ; 
and I conscientiously believe, from the facts I have de 
tailed, and from many other circumstances, which I do not 
deem it necessary to relate, that the whole " Book of 
Mormon," (so called,) is a silly fabrication of falsehood 
and wickedness, got up for speculation, and with a design 
to dupe the credulous and unwary, and in order that its 
fabricators might live upon the spoils of those who swal 
lowed the deception. 


I shall have occasion hereafter to refer to the loss of the 

one hundred and sixteen pages mentioned in the preceding 

letter, and to the manner in which they were lost ; as this fact 

will not only tend to illustrate Harris' character, but to throw 




some farther light upon the sinuous track which was pur 
sued to palm off the BOOK OF MORMON as a divine revela 
tion. Whether Smith and Cowdery were acting alone at 
the time referred to by Mr. Hale, or were then deriving 
their illumination from Rigdon, I have no means of deter 
mining. It is highly probable, however, that they then 
had access to a copy of the manuscript written by Mr. 
Spaulding, of which we shall soon speak, and this copy 
was undoubtedly obtained through the agency of Rigdon. 
The true authorship of what constitutes the basis of the 
BOOK OF MORMON, unquestionably belongs to Mr. Spauld 
ing. I cannot think, however, that the Book of Mormon 
is an exact copy of Mr. Spaulding's " Historical Ro 
mance" as Mrs. Davison very properly denominates it. 
No intelligent or well educated man would have been 
guilty of so many anachronisms and gross grammatical 
errors as characterise every part of the Book of Mormon. 
While Mr. Spaulding's Historical Romance is unquestion 
ably the ground- work of this volume, the christianized 
character of the work the hortatory clauses about salva 
tion through the blood of Christ and the adaptation of 
the whole to meet the peculiar religious views of Martin 
Harris, and to tally with the pretended discovery of Jo 
Smith, are evidently parts of the work added to Mr. 
Spaulding's manuscript. In farther corroboration of this 
idea, I will just advert to two facts. First, in this record, 
some portions of which were professedly written six hun 
dred years before the appearance of our Saviour, the 
various dramatis persons seem as familiar with the events 
of the New Testament and all the doctrines of the gospel, 
as any preacher of the present day. Now no intelligent 



and well educated man would be guilty of such a solecism 
as that of putting into the mouth of a Jew who lived four 
hundred years before the birth of Christ, a flippant dis 
course about things as though they were then familiarly 
known, when they did not occur till some five hundred 
years afterwards. Hence I infer that these parts were 
added to the original document of Mr. Spaulding by Jo 
Smith, Cowdery, Rigdon, or some of the fraternity. 
Another reason, leading me to the opinion that considera 
ble alterations were made in the document referred to, 
stands in connection with the fact to which I have already 
adverted the loss of the one hundred and sixteen pages, 
which were never replaced. These pages were lost in 
the following way. Harris brought home the manuscript 
pages and locked them up in his house thinking them 
quite safe. But his wife, who was not then, nor ever 
afterwards became a convert to Mormonism, took the op 
portunity, when he was out, to seize the manuscript and 
put it into the hands of one of her neighbours for safer 
keeping. When the manuscript was discovered to be mis 
sing, suspicion immediately fastened upon Mrs. Harris. 
She, however, refused to give any information in relation 
to the matter, but simply replied: "If this be a divine 
communication, the same being who revealed it to you can 
easily replace it." Mrs. H. believed the whole thing to 
be a gross deception, and she had formed a plan to expose 
the deception in the following manner. Taking it for 
granted that they would attempt to reproduce the part she 
had concealed, and that they could not possibly do it ver 
batim, she intended to keep the manuscript until the book 
was published, and then put these one hundred and sixteen 
pages into the hands of some one who would publish 



them, and show how they varied from those published in 
the Book of Mormon. But she had to deal with persons 
standing behind the scene, and moving the machinery that 
were too wily thus to be caught. Harris was indignant at 
his wife beyond measure he raved most violently, and it 
is said actually beat Mrs. H. with a rod but she remained 
firm, and would not give up the manuscript. The authors 
of this imposture did not dare to attempt to re-produce this 
part of the work ; but Jo Smith immediately had a revela 
tion about it which is inserted in the preface of the Book 
of Mormon as follows : " As many false reports have been 
circulated respecting the following work, and also many 
unlawful measures taken by evil designing persons to 
destroy me, and also the work ; I would inform you that 
I translated, by the gift and power of God, and caused to 
be written one hundred and sixteen pages, the which I 
took from the book of Lehi, which was an account abridged 
from the plates of Lehi, by the hand of Mormon; which 
said account, some person, or persons, have stolen and 
kept from me, notwithstanding my utmost exertions to re 
cover it again : And being commanded of the Lord that I 
should not translate the same over again, for Satan had put 
it into their hearts to tempt the Lord their God, by altering 
the words, that they did read contrary from that which I 
translated and caused to be written, and if I should bring 
forth the same words again, or, in other words, if I should 
translate the same over again they would publish that 
which they had stolen, and Satan would stir up the hearts 
of this generation that they might not receive this work : 
but behold, the Lord said unto me, I will not suffer that 
Satan shall accomplish his evil design in this thing : there 
fore thou shalt translate from the plates of Nephi, until ye 



come to that which ye have translated, which ye have re 
tained ; and behold ye shall publish it as the record of 
Nephi : and thus I will confound those who have altered 
my words. I will not suffer that they shall destroy my 
work : yea I will shew unto them that my wisdom is 
greater than the cunning of the devil." 

This was the expedient to which they resorted in order 
to avoid replacing the lost pages. Had those pages, how 
ever, been transcribed verbatim from Mr. Spaulding's 
manuscript, they would undoubtedly have re-produced 
them, and urged the fact of their being able to do so as a 
still further proof of their divine inspiration. But on the 
supposition that there was considerable new matter mingled 
up with Mr. Spaulding's sketches, it would be impossible 
for them to produce the one hundred and sixteen pages just 
as they were before, and they would therefore naturally 
devise some expedient to relieve themselves from the ne 
cessity of re-producing those pages. In all probability 
Cowdery, and Smith, and Rigdon, had all more or less to 
do in combining these additional parts with Mr. Spaulding's 

The origin of this work of Mr. Spaulding r to which I 
refer, and which unquestionably forms the entire ground 
work of the BOOK OF MORMON, is thus described by Mrs. 
Davison, formerly the wife of Mr. Spaulding. This 
statement of Mrs. Davison was published some time last 
winter in the Boston Recorder, to the editors of which it 
was sent by the Rev. John Storrs, the Congregational 
minister in Hollistown, accompanied with a certificate 
from two highly respectable clergymen, the Rev. Mr. 
Austin and the Rev. A. Ely, D. D., residing in Monson, 
Mass., the present place of residence of Mrs. Davison, 



stating that Mrs. Davison, the narrator of the following 
history, was formerly the wife of Rev. Solomon Spauld- 
ing, and that since his decease she had been married to a 
second husband by the name of Davison, and that she 
was a woman of irreproachable character, and a humble 
Christian, and that her testimony was worthy of implicit 

" As the * BOOK OF MORMON' or * GOLDEN BIBLE' has 
excited much attention, and has been put by a certain new 
sect in the place of the Sacred Scriptures, I deem it a duty 
which I owe to the public, to state what I know touching 
its origin. That its claims to a divine origin are wholly 
unfounded, needs no proof to a mind unperverted by the 
grossest delusions. That any sane person should rank it 
higher than any other merely human composition, is a 
matter of the greatest astonishment; yet it is received as 
divine by some who dwell in enlightened New England, 
and by those who have sustained the character of devoted 
Christians. Learning recently that Mormonism had found 
its way into a church in Massachusetts, and has impreg 
nated some with its gross delusions, so that excommuni 
cation has been necessary, I am determined to delay no 
longer in doing what I can to strip the mask from this 
mother of sin, and to lay open this pit of abominations. 

"Rev. Solomon Spaulding, to whom 1 was united in 
marriage in early life, was a graduate of Dartmouth Col 
lege, and was distinguished for a lively imagination and a 
great fondness for history. At the time of our marriage 
he resided in Cherry Valley, N. Y. From this place we 
removed to New Salem, Ashtabula county, Ohio ; some 
times called Cpnneaut, as it is situated on Conneaut creek. 
Shortly after our removal to this place his health sunk, and 



he was laid aside from active labors. In the town of New 
Salem there are numerous mounds and forts, supposed by 
many to be the dilapidated dwellings and fortifications of a 
race now extinct. These ancient relics arrest the atten 
tion of the new settlers and become objects of research for 
the curious. Numerous implements were found, and 
other articles evincing great skill in the arts. Mr. Spauld- 
ing being an educated man and passionately fond of his 
tory, took a lively interest in these developments of anti 
quity ; and in order to beguile the hours of retirement, 
and furnish employment for his lively imagination, he 
conceived the idea of giving a historical sketch of this 
long lost race. Their extreme antiquity of course would 
lead him to write in the most ancient style, and as the 
Old Testament is the most ancient book in the world, he 
imitated its style as nearly as possible. His sole object in 
writing this historical romance was to amuse himself and 
his neighbours. This was about the year 1812. Hull's 
surrender at Detroit occurred near the same time, and I 
recollect the date well from that circumstance. As he 
progressed in his narrative the neighbours would come in 
from time to time to hear portions read, and a great inte 
rest in the work was excited amongst them. It claimed 
to have been written by one of the lost nation, and to have 
been recovered from the earth, and assumed the title of 
" Manuscript Found." The neighbours would often en 
quire how Mr. Spaulding progressed in deciphering * the 
manuscript," and when he had a sufficient portion pre 
pared he would inform them, and they would assemble to 
hear it read. He was enabled from his acquaintance with 
the classics and ancient history, to introduce many singu 
lar names, which were particularly noticed by the people, 



and could be easily recognised by them. Mr. Solomon 
Spaulding had a brother, Mr. John Spaulding, residing in 
the place at the time, who was perfectly familiar with the 
work, and repeatedly heard the whole of it read. 

"From New Salem we removed to Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Here Mr. Spaulding found a friend and acquaintance, in 
the person of Mr. Patterson, an editor of a newspaper. 
He exhibited his manuscript to Mr. Patterson, who was 
very much pleased with it, and borrowed it for perusal. 
He retained it for a long time, and informed Mr. Spauld 
ing that if he would make out a title page and preface, lie 
would publish it, and it might be a source of profit. This 
Mr. Spaulding refused to do, for reasons which I cannot 
now state. Sidney Rigdon, who has figured so largely in 
the history of the Mormons, was at that time connected 
with the printing office of Mr. Patterson, as is well known 
in that region, and as Rigdon himself has frequently stated. 
Here he had ample opportunity to become acquainted 
with Mr. Spaulding's manuscript, and copy it if he chose. 
It was a malter of notoriety and interest to all connected 
with the printing establishment. At length the manu 
script was returned to its author, and soon after we re 
moved to Amity, Washington county, Pa., where Mr. 
Spaulding deceased in 1816. The manuscript then fell 
into my hands and was carefully preserved. It has fre 
quently been examined by my daughter, Mrs. Me 
Kenstry, of Monson, Mass., with whom I now reside, and 
by other friends. After the " Book of Mormon" came 
out, a copy of it was taken to New Salem, the place of 
Mr. Spaulding's former residence, and the very place 
where the " Manuscript Found" was written. A Mor 
mon preacher appointed a meeting there, and in the meet- 



ing read and repeated copious extracts from the " Book of 
Mormon." The historical part was immediately recog 
nised by all the older inhabitants, as the identical work of 
Mr. Spaulding, in which they had all been so deeply inter 
ested years before. Mr. John Spaulding was present, 
who is an eminently pious man, and recognised perfectly 
the work of his brother. He was amazed and afflicted 
that it should have been perverted to so wicked a purpose. 
His grief found vent in a flood of tears, and he arose on 
the spot, and expressed in the meeting his sorrow and 
regret that the writings of his sainted brother should be 
used for a purpose so vile and shocking. The excite 
ment in New Salem became so great that the inhabitants 
had a meeting, and deputed Dr. Philastus Hurlbut, one of 
their number, to repair to this place, and to obtain from 
me the original manuscript of Mr. Spaulding, for the pur 
pose of comparing it with the Mormon Bible, to satisfy 
their own minds, and to prevent their friends from em 
bracing an error so delusive. This was in the year 1834. 
Dr. Hurlbut brought with him an introduction, and request 
for the manuscript, which was signed by Messrs. Henry 
Lake, Aaron Wright, and others, with all whom I 
was acquainted, as they were my neighbours when 
I resided at New Salem. I am sure that nothing 
would grieve my husband more, were he living, than the 
use which has been made of his work. The air of an 
tiquity which was thrown about the composition, doubtless 
suggested the idea of converting it to purposes of delu 
sion. Thus an historical romance, with the addition of a 
few pious expressions and extracts from the sacred Scrip 
tures, has been construed into a new Bible, and palmed off 




upon a company of poor, deluded fanatics as divine. I 
have given the previous brief narration, that this work of 
deep deception and wickedness may be searched to the 
foundation, and the author exposed to the contempt and 
execration he so justly deserves. 


The whole mystery of the origin of this book seems to 
be cleared up by this statement, and I have seen no at 
tempt made to gainsay or deny its truth. The farther, 
however, Martin Harris went into this delusion, the more 
he seemed to become infatuated. He had already em 
barked a large portion of his property in bringing out the 
publication of the book of Mormon, and though many 
things had occurred that we should think would have con 
vinced any rational man that he had been made the subject 
of a deep laid scheme of deception, he still seems to have 
shut his eyes, and gone on in the dark. As I have already 
mentioned, at first, Martin Harris was assured that the 
golden plates, on which this record was engraven, would 
be his, and that it would be perfectly lawful to subject them 
to public inspection, but as the managers of this impos 
ture proceeded they found it necessary to advance with 
more caution, lest they should put into the hands of others 
the very elements which would contribute to their own 
utter explosion. Hence it was revealed to Jo Smith, that 
he would be authorized to show them only to three indi 
viduals who should assist in bringing forward this work, 
this was a lure to secure the continued co-operation of 
Harris. To convince Harris that he would be highly 
privileged, it was foretold in the book of Ether, written 



by Moroni,* that he that should find the plates should 
have the privilege of showing them to three persons. 
The passage referred to is as follows, " Behold ye may 
be privileged that ye may shew the plates unto those who 
shall assist to bring forth this work ; and unto three shall 
they be shewn by the power of God ; wherefore they 
shall know of a surety that these things are true. And in 
the mouth of three witnesses shall these things be estab- 
lished ; and the testimony of three and this work, in the 
which shall be shewn forth the power of God, and also 
his word, of which the Father and the Son, and the Holy 
Ghost beareth record; and all this shall stand as a testimony 
against the world, at the last day." 

In order to satisfy Harris, and those whom they hoped 
to delude, it became necessary that three witnesses should 
see the plates. And accordingly we find appended to the 
book of Mormon the following certificate, headed with 
this caption : 


" Be it known unto all nations, kindreds, tongues, and 
people, unto whom this work shall come, that we, through 
the grace of God the Father, and our Lord Jesus Christ, 
have seen the plates which contain the record which is a re 
cord of the people of Nephi, and also of the Lamanites, his 
brethren, and also of the people of Jared, which came from 
the tower, of which hath been spoken ; and we also know 
that they have been translated by the gift and power of God, 
for his voice has declared it unto us ; wherefore we know of 
a surety, that the work is true. And we also testify that we 
have seen the engravings which are upon the plates, and 
* See Book of Mormon, page 548. 



they have been shown unto us by the power of God, and 
not of man. And we declare with words of soberness 
that an angel of God came down from heaven, and he 
brought and laid before our eyes, that we beheld and saw 
the plates, and the engravings thereon ; and we know that 
it is by the grace of God the Father, and our Lord Jesus 
Christ, that we beheld, and bear record that these things 
are true ; and it is marvellous in our eyes : nevertheless the 
voice of the Lord commanded us that we should bear 
record of it ; wherefore to be obedient unto the command 
ments of God, we bear testimony of these things. And 
we know that if we are faithful in Christ, we shall rid our 
garments of the blood of all men, and be found spotless 
before the Judgment seat of Christ, and shall dwell with 
him eternally in the heavens. And the honor be to the 
Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost, which is 
one God. Amen. OLIVER COWDERY, 


To know how much this testimony is worth I will state 
one fact. A gentlernan in Palmyra, bred to the law, a 
professor of religion, and of undoubted veracity, told me 
that on one occassion, he appealed to Harris and asked 
him directly, " Did you see those plates ?" Harris 
replied, he did. " Did you see the plates, and the en 
gravings on them with your bodily eyes ?" Harris re 
plied, " Yes, I saw them with my eyes, they were 
shown unto me by the power of' God and not of man." 
" But did you see them with your natural, your bodily 
eyes, just as you see this pencil-case in my hand ? Now 
say no or yes to this." Harris replied, " Why I did not 
see them as I do that pencil-case, yet I saw them with the 



eye of faith ; I saw them just as distinctly as I see any 
thing around me, though at the time they were covered 
over with a cloth." 

This was the way that Harris saw the plates, Cowdery, 
another of the witnesses, was one of the prime actors in 
getting up this " cunningly devised fable." Whether 
Whitmer, the third witness, was a deceiver, or one of the 
deceived, I am unable to say, but he and four of his broth 
ers were among the earliest avowed converts to Mormon- 
ism. And as he was thus privileged because he assisted, to 
bring forth the work, there can be but little doubt that he 
bore the same relation to it that Cowdery did. The de 
claration in the testimony ' that an angel of God came 
down from heaven, and he brought and laid before our 
eyes, that we beheld and saw the plates, and the engravings 
thereon," show but too well what sort of jugglery to blind 
people's eyes, this certificate is. They seem themselves 
not to have been satisfied with the testimony ; and there 
fore, although it was expressly revealed that only three 
should see the plates, and that it should be established by 
the witness of three,* yet they immediately subjoin the 
testimony of eight additional witnesses in the following 
words: "Be it known unto all nations, kindreds and tongues, 
and people, unto whom this work shall come, that Joseph 
Smith Jr., the author and proprietor of this work has 
shewn unto us the plates of which hath been spoken, 
which have the appearance of gold ; and as many of the 
leaves as the said Smith has translated, we did handle with 
our hands ; and we also saw the engraving thereon, all of 
which has the appearance of ancient work and of curious 

*See Book of Mormon, page 548. 




workmanship. And thus we bear record, with words of 
soberness, that the said Smith have shown unto us, for we 
have seen and hefted, and know of a surety, that the said 
Smith has got the plates of which we have spoken. And 
we give our names unto the world, to witness unto the 
world that which we have seen : and we lie not, God bear 
ing witness of it." This is signed by Hiram Page, Jo 
Smith's father, two of his brothers, and four of the Whit- 
mers, brothers of the Whitmer, who was one of the three 
witnesses. They were all persons deeply interested in the 
success of this imposture, and expecting to make their 
fortunes by it. As I have before taken occasion to remark, 
Harris was ready to be duped by any thing which these 
jugglers were disposed to tell him. He seemed to think 
at length that he himself was inspired, and that revelations 
from heaven were made to him in reference to the most 
minute affairs in life. After the BOOK OF MORMON was 
published it was revealed to him that he should sell it for 
one dollar and fifty cents per copy. But as it did not sell 
very briskly at that price, he declared that another revelation 
M r as made to him from heaven, and that he was ordered 
to sell the book for one dollar per copy. No matter where 
he went, he saw visions and supernatural appearances 
all around him. He told a gentleman in Palmyra, 
after one of his excursions to Pennsylvania, while the 
translation of the Book of Mormon was going on, that on 
the way he met the Lord Jesus Christ, who walked along 
by the side of him in the shape of a deer for two or three 
miles, talking with him as familiarly as one man talks with 
another. With a knowledge of the facts that have now 
been stated, the existence of the Book of Mormon can well 
be accounted for, and also the success of this imposture. 





Denial of Mrs. Davison's statement in reference to the origin of 
the Mormon's Bible The truth of her statement corroborated by a 
letter from the Rev. John Storrs By another from the Rev. D. R. 

UP to the period, in which the preceding sketch was 
published in the columns of the Episcopal Recorder, no 
attempt was made, as far as our information extends, to 
contradict the statement of Mrs. Davison, or in any way 
to invalidate her testimony. Shortly after the appearance 
of the sketch above referred to, a small pamphlet was 
issued by one of the Mormon ministers, who, we under 
stand, bears the relation of Pastor to one of the societies 
of that people, established in Philadelphia, who call them 
selves * The church of the latter day saints." 

Although we do not think, that the truth, or falsehood 
of Mormonism, in any degree turns upon the correctness, or 
incorrectness of the foregoing statement of Mrs. Davison, 
for deceit and imposture are enstamped upon every feature 
of this monster, evoked by a money digger and a juggler 
from the shades of darkness still if her statement be cor 
rect and is to be relied upon, the facts brought out by 
Mrs. Davison would seem to be one of those singular 
developments of divine Providence, by which impostors 



are confounded, and their devices brought to nought ; and 
therefore it may be well to look for a moment at the argu 
ments that are offered to disprove, what the writer of the 
pamphlet just referred to denominates " THE SPAULDING 
STORY." The pamphlet itself abounds with low and 
scurrilous remark just such as we should think would be 
likely to emanate from a Mormon leader. The principal 
points upon which the writer rests his argument, are, 

First. The worthless character of Dr. P. Hurlbut who 
was deputed by a meeting called at New Salem to visit 
Mrs. Davison and obtain from her the manuscript written 
by her husband, Rev. Mr. Spaulding. 

Secondly. That Mrs. Davison neither wrote nor signed 
the letter published in the Boston Recorder, but that it was 
the production of the Rev. Mr. Storrs. 

Thirdly. That Sidney Rigdon did not join the Mor 
mons nor have any connection with them, till after the 
Book of Mormon was published: and did not reside at 
Pittsburgh at the time he was supposed to have done so 
by Mrs. Davison. 

1. In reference to the first point: this writer depicts the 
character of Dr. Hurlbut, as made up of dissoluteness, 
depravity, and crime. He was for a considerable period 
a zealous Mormon, was ordained an elder, became a dis 
tinguished preacher among them, and continued so, until 
they could endure his vices no longer and cast him out 
then he turned against them, and endeavoured to expose 
their deception and imposture. Whether this be a slan 
der or true testimony, we have no means of ascertaining. 
But we do not see, that in either case it makes any thing 
for Mormonism, or in the least affects the truth of Mrs. 
Davison's statement. We can readily believe that a sys- 



tern of imposture like that of Mormonism, would have 
charms for just such a man as Hurlbut is described. 

2. The assertion that Mrs. Davison did not write nor 
subscribe the letter published in the Boston Recorder, 
furnishes a fair specimen of the Jesuitical tricks resorted 
to, to keep up this imposture. A letter is inserted in the 
pamphlet above referred to, written by Mr. John Haven, 
in which a conversation is related, said to have taken 
place between Mrs. Davison and the brother of the writer, 
and which is calculated and evidently designed to carry 
the impression that Mrs. Davison utterly disavowed the 
authorship of the letter, published in her name in relation 
to the Spaulding manuscript. To satisfy myself on the 
truth of this point, I addressed a letter to the Rev. Mr. 
Storrs, an extract from which I will subjoin : 

" Hollistown, June 28th, 1841. 

** The results of my inquiries from Dr. Ely and from 
Mr. Austin confirm me in the opinion the Spaulding manu 
script was the foundation of the foolish affair called the 
Mormon Bible. This is my opinion though we may not 
be able to prove it directly. I have never supposed, I have 
never said that they were one and the same thing. Only 
that it was the foundation of the Mormon Bible : sup 
posing that its story, its incidents, and names, gave the 
Mormon leaders the idea of their own book, and supposing 
that from it they manufactured the book about which so 
much has been said. So then in using the word ' identi 
cal 1 in relation to the manuscript and Smith's book, it 
must be understood in a modified sense. 

We may never be able to prove by direct testimony 
that such was the foundation of the Mormon Bible. But 



we have circumstantial evidence enough. The communi 
cation made to the world by Mrs. Davison, it seems to 
me settles the question. 

And then this testimony is not at all invalidated by the 
letter written from this town by Mr. John Haven, and pub 
lished in the pamphlet you sent me, entitled " the Origin 
of the Spaulding Story concerning the manuscript found." 
And here observe the sophistry of this communication. 
The questions and answers from the letter are as follows : 
* Did you, Mrs. Davison, write a letter to John Storrs, 
giving an account of the origin of the Book of Mormon ? 
fins. I did not. Ques. Did you sign your name to it ? 
Jlns. I did not ; neither did I see the letter till I saw it in 
the Boston Recorder : the letter was never brought to me 
to sign. Ques. What agency had you in having this letter 
sent to Mr. Storrs? rfns. D. R. Austin came to my 
house and asked me some questions, took some minutes 
on paper, and from these wrote the letter. Ques. Is 
what is written in the letter true ? Jim. In the main it is.' 
The quibbling here is palpable. It is very true Mrs. 
Davison did not write a letter to me, and what is more, of 
course she did not sign it. But this she did do, and just 
what I wrote you in my former letter I supposed she did : 
she did sign her name to the original copy as prepared 
from her statement by Mr. Austin. This original copy is 
now in the hands of Mr. Austin. This he told me last 
week. But again, mark another and important thing in 
this catechism. It is the distinct avowal after all, and pub 
lished by the Mormons themselves that what she had said 
was true. " Is what is written in the letter true ? Jlns. 
" In the main it is." It is just as you or any other honest 
man under similar circumstances would affirm such a pro- 



duction to be the truth. In fact she does not as I under 
stand from the questions and answers disavow a single 
statement made in the communication to which her name 
was affixed. But she affirms it all as a verity. I must 
confess my wonder that the Mormons should ever have 
published the above quotations. It must be that they 
thought their quibble about Mrs. D. not signing the identi 
cal piece of paper sent to me, would cover up the great 
and important fact that, she affirmed that all that was sent 
to me was the truth. So then the circumstantial evidence 
contained in the communication published in the Recorder 
some few years ago that the Spaulding manuscript was the 
origin of the golden Bible remains sound. 

But another thing : I expect we shall never be able to 
lay our hands on the identical manuscript, and thus prove 
by comparison in the sight of all that one was the founda 
tion or origin of the other. But be this as it may, the 
very fact that it is lost, is evidence in my mind that the 
manuscript was the foundation of the Mormon book. Dr, 
Hurlbut took the manuscript. It is reported in Missouri, 
that he sold it for four hundred dollars ; that the manuscript 
is not to be found. I must confess that my suspicions are, 
that a deep laid plot has been consummated to obtain pos 
session of the manuscript, and thus preclude all possibility 
of its ever being compared by competent men with the 
Book of Mormon. At least my suspicions will not be re 
moved until the manuscript and the whole manuscript 
is returned to the hands of its owner. I am suspicious 
that a deep and long game has been played by the Mor 
mons to obtain and destroy the manuscript. Some one has 
got that manuscript and has got it secreted from the public 
eye. And if that manuscript cannot be found, in my mind 



will be proved that the Mormons have conveyed it away. 
The burden of proof is on the Mormons. To them it be 
longs to produce the manuscript. If they have got the 
manuscript and will not produce it, it is plain they fear its 
publication to the world will destroy their pretended reve 

Your brother in the Lord, 


I also wrote to the Rev. Mr. Austin for information, 
who returned me an answer from which I make the fol 
lowing extracts. 

" Sturbridge, Mass., June 28th, 1841. 

" The circumstances which .called forth the letter pub 
lished in the Boston Recorder in April 1839, were stated 
by Mr. Storrs in the introduction to that article. At his 
request I obtained from Mrs. Davison a statement of the 
facts contained in that letter, and wrote them out precisely 
as she related them to me. She then signed the paper 
with her own hand which I have now in my possession 
Every fact as stated in. that letter was related to me by her 
in the order they are set down. (There is one word mis 
printed in the published letter instead of " woman 
preacher," on the second column, it should be Mormon 

" That the pamphlet published to refute the letter 
should contain false statements is not surprising. A 
scheme got up in falsehood must be sustained by lies. 
But the truth of the statements contained in that letter of 
Mrs. D. will remain unshaken, notwithstanding all the 
Mormons can do. It gives a very clear, consistent and 



rational account of the origin of that abominable piece of 
deception and fraud. 

" Mrs. Davison is now living about twelve miles from 
this place ; is an aged woman and very infirm. Dr. Hurl- 
but was an entire stranger to her, and obtained her confi 
dence by means of the letters of introduction which he 
brought from gentlemen in New-Salem. He promised to 
return the manuscript in a short time. Mrs. D. would 
only consent to lend it to him. He stated some time 
after he had received the manuscript that he had made 
$400 out of it. Mrs. D. has not the least doubt now 
but that he obtained it in order to sell it to the Mormons. 
If Dr. H. can be found, I have no doubt but that the 
manuscript may be traced into the hands of the Mormons 
which would be about as satisfactory as to find it. If 
they purchased it of him, (of which there is no doubt) 
and refuse to present it, the reason is obvious. I can 
give no information with respect to the present residence 
of Dr. H. I suppose light on this point may be obtained 
at New Salem. 

"It is really wonderful how this most palpable delu 
sion has spread. The foundation of it is the most weak 
and absurd of any delusion ever palmed upon the world. 
It is remarkable how these manias all tend to one point. 
Perfectionism, Unionism, and Mormonism, as they have 
been developed in this region, have all aimed directly at 
licentiousness. They feed and fatten upon one base 
passion. Mormonism will doubtless have its day and 
then die. Something quite as absurd will spring up in 
its place. There is an appetite in the community which 
craves such food. If it can be garnished with the name 
of religion, it will go into more extensive use. 



"This is one of the deepest plots of the devil. He 
has placed his golden hook under the name of a ** golden 
book" in the nose of these miserable fanatics, and is 
leading them in the direct way to destruction. 

" Yours in the bonds of Christian fellowship, 

" D. R. AUSTIN." 

3. In relation to the assertion, that Sidney Rigdon did 
not embrace Mormonism till after the publication of the 
Book of Mormon ; and that he did not reside in Pitts 
burgh at the time stated by Mrs. Davison, we have 
some remarks to offer in a subsequent chapter. 

If Rigdon did not reside there at the time, still in ac 
cordance with Mrs. D's suggestion, a copy might have been 
made of Mr. Spaulding's manuscript, which subsequently 
came into his hands. This copy, even if Rigdon had no 
hand in preparing the Book of Mormon, and was wholly 
ignorant of the existence of Mr. Spaulding's manuscript, 
might have reached Smith in some other way. It is 
enough to know that the one was the foundation of the 
other, no matter who the agents in the imposture are. 
Even if it could be proved that Rigdon had no knowledge 
of the manuscript, and no hand whatever in preparing the 
Book of Mormon, this would in no respect invalidate Mrs. 
Davison's testimony, or show that Mr. Spaulding's his 
torical romance was not the foundation of that book. 
Mrs. Davison merely conjectures that Rigdon must have 
been the agent and that from circumstantial evidence 
but she knows that the outline of her husband's histori 
cal romance is actually the basis the manifest substratum 
of the Mormon Bible. 

This point is made very clear bv her testimony, that, 



in some way or other, Smith and his coadjutors obtained a 
copy of Mr. Spaulding's manuscript, which evidently 
forms the basis of this pretended bible, and fastens upon it 
the undoubted mark of imposture. 

But were not this the case had Smith and those as 
sociated with him no such basis, on which to build the 
scheme developed in the Book of Mormon, this would 
in no way strengthen the claims which this volume sets up 
for a divine origin. The book itself is full of internal 
evidence of imposture and fraud. 

If the reader can have patience to follow us we will 
endeavour in the two subsequent chapters to furnish him 
with an outline of the principal topics contained in the 
Book of Mormon. 





ACCORDING to the intimation given in the last -chapter, 
we proceed to furnish our readers with a brief outline 
of the contents of that mysterious volume whose origin 
and history we have already given, and which, as we 
have seen, has exerted no small influence in imparting a 
degree of plausibility to the claims set up by this sect, 
and in gaining for them among the superstitious and the 
credulous, hosts of converts. I have before me a copy 
of the BOOK OF MORMON, which I have read through in 
order to furnish the following analysis. Since reading 
this volume of nearly six hundred pages, I am more than 
ever convinced that there were several hands employed in 
its preparation. There are certainly striking marks of 
genius and literary skill displayed in the management of 
the main story while in some of the details and hortatory 
parts there are no less unequivocal marks of bungling and 
botch work. 

As I have already stated, this volume consists of fifteen 
separate books, which profess to have been written at differ 
ent periods, and by different authors, whose names they res 
pectively bear : all these authors, however, belonged to the 
same people, and were successively raised up by Jehovah, 



and by him inspired to carry on the progress of the narrative, 
and deposit the record when made upon metallic plates in 
the same ark of testimony which contained the plates handed 
down by their predecessors. The first book in the 
volume is called the Book of Nephi: it contains seven dis 
tinct chapters, and opens with an account of Lehi, the 
father of Nephi. Nephi, the writer of this first book, ap 
pears to be the grand hero of this epic. His father, Lehi, 
resided in Jerusalem was a devout man, and one that 
feared God. His mother's name was Sariah and the 
names of his three brothers were Laman, Lemuel, and 
Sam. The narrative commences with the first year of the 
reign of Zedekiah, king of Judah. During this year the 
prophets of the most high God came and uttered such 
fearful predictions in relation to the destruction of Jerusa 
lem, that Lehi became greatly alarmed for the city and for 
his people. He was so impressed with the messages 
which the Hebrew seers proclaimed, that he was led to 
go and pray with great fervency before the Lord. While 
in this solemn act of prayer, there came down a pillar of 
fire and rested upon a rock before him, blazing forth in 
awful majesty, and speaking to him out of the flames. 
Awed and terrified by this divine manifestation, he went 
home and cast himself upon his bed overwhelmed with 
anxious thoughts and fearful forebodings. While he lay 
there thus meditating upon what he had seen, he was sud 
denly carried away in a vision, and saw the heavens 
opened, and God sitting upon his throne, " surrounded by 
numberless concourses of angels." " And it came to 
pass," I here use the language of Nephi, (page 6,) that 
he saw one descending out of the midst of heaven. And 



he beheld that his lustre was above that of the sun at noon 
day ; and he saw twelve others following him, and their 
brightness did exceed that of the stars in the firmament ; 
and they came down and went forth upon the face of the 
earth ; and the first came and stood before my father, and 
gave unto him a book, and bade him that he should read. 
And it came to pass as he read, he was filled with the Spi 
rit of the Lord, and he read, saying, Wo, wo unto Jeru 
salem ! for I have seen thine abominations ; yea and many 
things did my father read concerning Jerusalem that it 
should be destroyed, and the inhabitants thereof, many 
should perish by the sword, and many should be carried 
away captive into Babylon." Lehi, after this vision, be 
came himself a prophet, and predicted the overthrow of 
the Holy City ; on account of which he was persecuted 
by the Jews. While they were plotting to destroy him, 
he had another vision, by which he was instructed to take 
his family and depart into the wilderness. He immediately 
obeyed, leaving his house and land and gold and silver and 
precious things behind. In his journeyings he came near 
the shore of the Red Sea, and at length pitched his tent in 
a valley beside a river of water. His two eldest sons 
were quite unbelieving, and thought it absurd that their 
father should leave all his comforts behind, and come to 
dwell in a tent in the wilderness. But Nephi who was 
the third son, was piously disposed, and being led to seek 
the face of the Lord in prayer, had a revelation from God 
that he should be led to a land of promise, and become 
a teacher and ruler over his brethren. 

After this, Lehi also had another vision, in which he 
was commanded to send Nephi and his brethren back to 



Jerusalem to obtain " the record of the Jews, and also a 
genealogy of his forefathers, engraven upon plates of 
brass. 91 This was a mission attended with great danger, 
and replete with sundry adventures of a marvellous char 
acter. After the three brethren had reached Jerusalem, 
they cast lots to decide which should go to Laban, who 
seems to have been the keeper of these sacred deposites, 
and ask for the records. The lot fell upon Laman. He 
was received very roughly by Laban, and had to flee from 
his presence for his life, without attaining the object of his 
wishes. The two elder brothers now determined to aban 
don the object of their mission and go back to their father ; 
but Nephi, full of faith, wished still to persevere, and 
therefore proposed that they should go to their former re 
sidence and collect together the gold and silver and pre 
cious things belonging to their father, and endeavour to 
make an impression upon Laban's mind by the offer of all 
these, if he would give them " the plates of brass." Laban 
was pleased with the exhibition of their treasures, and 
determined to slay them, in order to possess their wealth. 
They fled, however, into the wilderness, and hid them 
selves in the cavity of a rock. The two elder brothers 
now became utterly indignant with Nephi, and smote him 
with a rod, because he had led them into such an adven 
ture. An angel of God, however, appeared, and rebuked 
them enjoining it upon them to go up to Jerusalem again, 
and not to give over the enterprise upon which they had 
embarked assuring them that the Lord would deliver La- 
ban into their hands. Notwithstanding this divine reproof, 
the two elder brothers felt rather sorely towards Nephi, 
and went up again towards Jerusalem quite reluctantly. 
When they reached the walls of the city, they positively 



refused to go any farther. Nephi, however, offered to 
go again to the house of Laban. He proposed that they 
should hide without the walls, and wait till his return. It 
was night ; and Nephi stole carefully into the city, direct 
ing his steps towards the house of Laban. As he drew 
near his residence, however, he found a man stretched out 
on the ground, drunk with wine. Upon examination, he 
found it was Laban himself. He was armed with a sword, 
the hilt of which was " of pure gold, and the workman 
ship exceeding fine." Nephi drew the sword fi> ^ its 
scabbard, and as he held it up, he felt constrained by the 
Spirit to kill Laban. He had to struggle some time with 
the natural tenderness of his feelings, but his desire to obey 
God prevailed, and he therefore " took Laban by the hair 
of the head, and smote off his head with his own sword." 
He then stript off the garments of Laban, and put them on 
himself, and girded himself with his armour, and " went 
forth towards the treasury of Laban," and as he went, 
" he saw the servant of Laban that had the keys of the 
treasury. This servant mistook Nephi, who tried to imi 
tate the voice of Laban, for his own master, and readily 
took out * the engravings which were upon the plates of 
brass" and carried them without the walls. When the 
servant discovered the mistake, he was very much fright 
ened but at length was prevailed upon to accompany 
these adventurers into the wilderness : therefore having 
obtained the object of their wishes, they returned to the 
tent of their father. 

Lehi now examined, at his leisure, the records engraven 
upon the plates of brass, and found that they contained the 
five books of Moses, " and also a record of the Jews from 
the beginning even down to the commencement of the 



reign of Zedekiah, and also many prophecies spoken by 
the mouth of Jeremiah." He also found a genealogy of 
his fathers, from which he learned that he was a descend 
ant of Joseph. 

Here I cannot but remark that it is astonishing that he 
had not found out before this to what tribe he belonged ; 
and it is not a little remarkable that as the sons of Joseph, 
Ephraim, and Manassah, were appointed to represent two 
tribes, in the place of Joseph and Levi, he had not told us 
from which of these descendants he sprang. We were 
all along at a loss to know what sort of officer Laban was, 
but here we are told at this stage of the narrative : " Thus 
my father Lehi did discover the genealogy of his fathers. 
And Laban also was a descendant of Joseph, wherefore he 
and his fathers kept the records." This seems to us quite 
a non sequitur. 

But to proceed. Upon obtaining these plates of brass, 
Lehi began to be " filled with the spirit, and to prophecy 
concerning his seed ; that these plates of brass should go 
forth unto all nations, kindreds, tongues, and people, 
which were of his seed. Wherefore, he said that these 
plates of brass should never perish ; neither should they 
be dimmed any more by time." 

Soon after this Nephi had a very wonderful vision, 
which he told to his two sons, by way of warning the 
two elder, Laman and Lemuel, of whom he had great 
fears as they were disposed to be unbelieving and rebel 
lious. This vision presented an allegorical representation. 
Lehi declared that he saw a man dressed in a white robe, 
who came and stood before him, and then bade him follow 
him. He did so. The white robed guide led him through 
a long, dark, and dreary waste. After travelling on for 


M or monism. 

many hours in darkness he began to pray unto the Lord ; 
and the Lord then led him into a large, spacious field, in 
the midst of which he saw "a tree whose fruit was desira 
ble to make one happy." He partook of this fruit, which 
was intensely white, " exceeding all the whiteness he had 
ever seen." As soon as he had partaken of the fruit, 
" his soul was filled with exceeding great joy." This led 
him to wish that his family should come and partake of 
the same. While looking around to see if he could dis 
cover his family, he beheld a river of water, which ran 
along near the tree of whose fruit he had been partaking. 
At a short distance he beheld the head of this stream, and 
near it his wife and two younger sons, and they stood as 
if they knew not whither they should go : and he called out 
unto them with a loud voice to approach the tree and par 
take the fruit thereof, and they came. And then his anx 
ieties were awake for his two elder sons, whom at length 
he discovered in the distance, near the head of the stream, 
but he could not induce them to come to him or approach 
the tree. And then he beheld a rod of iron extending 
along the bank of the river, leading to the tree by which 
he stood : and also " a straight and narrow path, which 
came along by the rod of iron to the tree. And it also 
led oy the head of the fountain, unto a large and spacious 
field, as if it had been a world, and he saw numberless 
concourses of people : many of whom were pressing for 
wards, that they might obtain the path which led unto the 
tree by which he stood." As soon as those who were 
advancing entered this narrow path they encountered ** an 
exceeding great mist of darkness," so that many lost their 
way, while others caught hold of the end of the rod of iron, 
and pressed forward through the mist, clinging to the rod, 



and following it until they came into the light amid which 
the tree stood, and partook of its fruit. The persons who 
thus approached the tree, after they had partaken of the 
fruit, looked around and some of them seemed ashamed. 
" Lehi also cast his eyes round about, and beheld on the 
other side of the river of water, a great and spacious build 
ing : and it stood as it were in the air : and it was filled 
with people both old and young, both male and female ; 
and their manner of dress was exceeding fine ; and they 
were in the attitude of mocking and pointing their fingers 
towards those which had come at, and were partaking of 
the fruit." This was what caused some who had come 
to the tree to be filled with shame, and to fall away. He 
saw continual multitudes pressing forward towards the 
tree, and others towards the great, and spacious building. 
With all his persuasion Lehi could not induce his two 
eldest sons to come and partake of the fruit of the tree, 
therefore he had great fears in relation to them. 

After relating this vision, Lehi began to prophecy in re 
lation to the Saviour, and told very distinctly what is re 
lated in the New Testament about him. Nephi, however, 
became very anxious to see the tree of which his father 
had told, and at length he was gratified. The same vision 
was repeated to him, and he obtained also from the spirit 
of the Lord the interpretation thereof. The spirit com 
manded him to look. He did so, and first he beheld Jeru 
salem then Nazareth and " in the city of Nazareth, a 
virgin exceeding fair and white." And then he saw the 
heavens open, and an angel came down, and stood before 
him, and said, "the virgin which thou seest r is the mother 
of God, after the manner of the flesh." She was carried 
away in the spirit, and after awhile she returned bearing a 



child in her arms, and the angel said to him, " Behold the 
Lamb of God, yea even the eternal Father ! Knowest 
thou the meaning of the tree which thy father saw ? And 
I answered him, saying: Yea, it is the love of God." 
Afterwards he looked and saw the son of God going forth 
among the children of men. He then saw in succession 
all the miracles of Christ all the events of his life the 
scenes that followed his crucifixion and the whole his 
tory of the Christian Church up to the present time 
beyond which the deponent Nephi sayeth not. 

The tree was the love of God in Christ the rod of 
iron leading to it was the word of God the mist and 
darkness, that blinded the eyes of those going to the tree, 
were the temptations of the devil the large and spacious 
building was the pride and vain imaginations of the chil 
dren of men. 

After this protracted vision, Nephi returned to the tent 
of his father, and found his brethren disputing about the 
allegorical sense of the vision of their father Lehi. He 
of course was now prepared to enlighten them. They 
asked him " what meaneth the river of water which our 
father saw ?" and he replied, " The water was filthiness. 
So much was my father's mind swallowed up in other 
things, that he beheld not the filthiness of the water, and 
I said unto them, that it was an awful gulf which separateth 
the wicked from the tree of life, and also from the saints of 
God a representation of hell." 

I have neglected to mention that previous to Lehi's 
vision, Nephi and his brethren were commissioned to go 
up to Jerusalem the second time, to persuade Ishmael and 
his five daughters to join his father in the wilderness. 
The fifth chapter opens with a tender scene, in which 



Nephi and his brethren are married to the daughters of 
Ishmael. Immediately after, Lehi received a command 
to strike his tent and journey on into the wilderness. And 
when he arose the next morning and went forth to the tent 
door, * to his great astonishment he beheld upon the 
ground a round ball of curious workmanship, and it was of 
fine brass. And within the ball were two spindles ; and 
the one pointed the way whither we should go into the 
wilderness." They travelled on ' for the space of four 
days nearly a south east direction." Various trials oc 
curred in their journey. The elder brothers uniformly 
murmured, and Nephi was uniformly submissive. When 
in extremity the brass ball was their guide, pointing out 
the way, and exhibiting, inscribed on its sides, the various 
intelligence they needed visible at proper times. Ishmael 
died in the wilderness, where they sojourned for the space 
of eight years. At length they pitched their tents by 
the sea shore. Here Nephi was called to ascend a high 
mountain. There the Lord met him, and commanded 
him to construct a ship to carry his people across the 
waters to the promised land. He commenced the con 
struction of this ship in the face of much opposition, and 
of many difficulties, being quite ignorant of the art of ship 
building, and his brethren at the same time ridiculing and 
opposing him. But the Lord helped him, so that ulti 
mately his brethren not only desisted from their opposi 
tion, but united in assisting him to complete it ; and then 
they embarked with all their stock of seeds, animals, and 
provisions. During the voyage Nephi's elder brothers 
began again to be rebellious. They bound him with 
cords, and treated him with great cruelty. They, how 
ever, soon encountered a terrible gale, and were driven 




back from their course. The brazen ball which had 
miraculously guided them through the wilderness, and 
which was now a compass to steer by, ceased to work, 
and they were in the most awful peril. For a long time 
their fate seemed suspended, and their destiny doubtful ; 
but the power of God at length softened the hearts of 
Laman and Lemuel, who released Nephi from his con 
finement, and then again every thing went on smoothly, 
and they soon reached the land of promise, which of 
course was America, where '* they found beasts of every 
kind in the forest, both the cow, and the ox, and the ass, 
and the horse, and the goat, and the wild goat, and all 
manner of wild animals for the use of men." And " all 
manner of ore, both of gold and silver, and copper." Nephi 
by the command of the Lord made metallic plates soon 
after his arrival in America of this ore, on which he re 
corded their peregrinations, adventures, and all the prophe 
cies which God gave him concerning the future destinies 
of his people and the human race. These plates were to 
be kept for the instruction of the people of the land, and 
for other purposes known to the Lord. 

The second book of Nephi consists of fifteen chapters. 
It opens with an account of Lehi's death, who, previous 
to his decease, calls all his children around him and their 
descendants, and reminds them of God's goodness in 
having brought them to the promised land, and gives 
each a patriarchal blessing, uttering sundry predictions in 
reference to their future destinies. After the death of 
Lehi, Laman and Lemuel undertook to destroy Nephi, 
who thereupon fled into the wilderness, taking along with 
him his own family, his brother Sam, and his younger 
brothers, Jacob and Joseph, who were born after his father 



went out from Jerusalem, and their families. He also took 
along with him the plates of brass, and the ball that 
guided them in their former wanderings in the wilder 
ness by the Red Sea, and was their compass to steer by 
across the ocean. Being thus separated they became 
the heads of separate tribes. The Nephites soon grew 
into a numerous people, and built a temple "like unto 
Solomon's." They, like their father Nephite, for many 
generations were good chri'stians, hundreds of years be 
fore Christ was born, practising baptism and other Chris 
tian usages. Nephi here accounts for the color of the 
aborigines. It was the curse of God upon the descend 
ants of his elder brothers on account of their disobedience. 
" Wherefore as they were white, and exceeding fair and 
delightsome, that they might not be enticing unto my peo- 
pl, therefore the Lord God did cause a skin of blackness 
to come upon them." A curse was also pronounced upon 
intermarriages with them. Nephi also declares that on 
account of the curse of God upon them " they did be 
come an idle people, full of mischief and subtlety, and 
did seek in the wilderness for beasts of prey." 

In this book is :ilso introduced " the words of Jacob, 
the brother of Nephi, which he spake unto the people of 
Nephi." He predicts the coming of Christ, and the re 
turn of the Jews from dispersion upon embracing the 
gospel. Nephi then takes up the subject, and transcribes 
several chapters from Isaiah by way of corroboration. 
This is followed by a long harangue, setting forth all the 
peculiar theology of the New Testament. He then pre 
dicts the appearance of a great prophet, and a marvellous 
book which he shall bring to light. The book of course 
is the golden Bible, and the prophet Jo Smith. " Where- 



fore," continues he, at that day when the book shall be 
delivered unto the man of whom I have spoken, the book 
shall be hid from the eyes of the world, that the eyes of 
none shall behold it, save it be that three witnesses shall 
behold it by the power of God, besides him to whom 
the book shall be delivered : and they shall testify to the 
truth of the book, and the things therein." This would 
seem to be directly in the teeth of what actually happened, 
for as we have seen in a former number there were eight 
other witnesses besides the three, who declared that they 
saw these mysterious plates. To elude this difficulty 
a saving clause is thrown into this chapter to this effect. 
" And there is none other which shall view it, save it be 
a few, according to the will of God, to bear testimony of 
his word unto the children of men." The reason is also 
here assigned why the plates are not spread before the 
learned it is to teach them humility ! An unlearned 
man is chosen to transcribe the hieroglyphics, or words 
of the book, that the learned may read them. The 
learned refuse to read the hieroglyphics, unless they can 
see the plates whence they are taken. This God will not 
permit. He has no need of learned men. He is able to 
do his own work. He will therefore make use of the un 
learned to bring these hidden things to light. The pro 
phet, though an unlearned man, will be competent 
through the power of God, not only to transcribe but to 
translate the book. 

Nephi discards altogether the idea that our present 
revelation is complete, or that our sacred books contain 
the whole canon of Scripture. He predicts that the Book 
of Mormon will meet with opposition, that many of the 
Gentiles would say upon its appearance, " A Bible, a 



Bibl, we have got a Bible, and there cannot be any more 
Bible. Thou fool, that shall say, a Bible, we have got a 
Bible, and we need no more Bible. Have ye obtained a 
Bible save it were by the Jews ? Know ye not that there 
are more nations than one ? Know ye not that I, the 
Lord your God have created all men, and that I remem 
ber they which are upon the isles of the sea ; and that I 
rule in the heavens above, and in the earth beneath ; and 
I bring forth my word unto the children of men, yea even 
upon all the nations of the earth ? Wherefore murmur 
ye, because that ye shall receive more of my word ? 
Know ye not that the testimony of two nations is a wit 
ness unto you that I am God, that I remember one nation 
like unto another ? Wherefore I speak the same words 
unto one nation like unto another. And when the two 
nations shall run together, the testimony of the two 
nations shall run together also. And I do this that I may 
prove unto many that I am the same yesterday to-day 
and forever, and that I speak forth my words according to 
my own pleasure. And because that I have spoken one 
word, ye need not suppose that I cannot speak another ; 
for my work is not yet finished, neither shall it be until 
the end of man ; neither from that time henceforth and 
forever. Wherefore because ye have a Bible ye need 
not suppose that it contains all my words ; neither need 
ye to suppose that I have not caused more to be written ; 
for I command all men both in the east and in the west, 
and in the north and in the sonth, and in the Islands of 
the sea, that they shall write those words I speak unto 
them. Behold I shall speak unto the Jews and they shall 

write it, unto the Nephites, and they shall write it, 




unto the other tribes of the house of Israel which I Jiave 
led away, and they shall write it ; and unto all the nations 
of the earth and they shall write it. And the Jews shall 
have the words of the Nephites, and the Nephites the 
words of the Jews. And the Nephites and the Jews 
shall have the words of the lost tribes of Israel, &c." 
This we consider one of the most pernicious features of 
this HISTORICAL ROMANCE, that it claims for itself an 
entire equality in point of divine authority with the 
sacred canon. It is not only calculated to deceive and de 
lude the credulous, and marvel loving, but to strengthen 
the cause of infidelity. 

The only remaining thing worthy of note in this second 
Book of Nephi, is the prediction of the ultimate con 
version of the Indians, who are a part of the lost tribes of 
Israel, or descendants of Nephi, to Christianity, through 
the influence of Mormonism, and that soon after this 
event they would change their colour, and become " a 
white and delightsome people." The period occupied 
by the events related in this Book of Nephi, is fifty 
five years. 

The next book in course is the Book of Jacob, one of 
the younger brothers of Nephi ; which contains five 
chapters. This book gives an account of the ordaining 
of Jacob by Nephi, to be priest over the people, and the 
particulars of Nephi's death. It also relates the circum 
stance of Jacob's confounding a man who rose up among 
them and sought to overthrow the doctrine of Christ ; 
and contains a specimen of Jacob's preaching. One of 
the arguments by which he endeavoured to reclaim the 
Nephites from certain prevailing sins, was that if they 




did not repent, the curse of God would light upon them 
and they would become as dark coloured as the Laman- 
ites. Sundry efforts were made by the benevolent 
Nephites " to reclaim and restore the Lamanites to the 
knowledge of the truth." But it was all to no purpose. 
They continued to delight in wars and bloodshed, and 
cherished an eternal hatred against their brethren. To 
ward off their incursions, the people of Nephi had to 
fortify and protect their land with a strong military force. 

Jacob, who had brought up his son Enos in the 
nurture and admonition of the Lord," when he saw his 
own decease approaching, gave him the plates and left 
him successor in office over the people of Nephi. 

The Book of Enos is short, as is also the two follow 
ing books of Jarom and Omni, containing little except an 
account of the transmission of the plates from one genera 
tion to another till the time of king Benjamin, about 320 
years after the flight of Lehi from Jerusalem. During the 
latter part of this period, many wars took place between 
the people of Nephi and the Lamanites ; so that Mosiah, 
then king, was warned to emigrate into a new region, or 
district of the wilderness into a land called Zarahemla. 
After reaching there they discovered that the people of 
Zarahemla were also Jews who came from Jerusalem at 
the time that Zedekiah, king of Judah, was carried away 
captive into Babylon, and that they were also brought by 
the hand of the Lord across the great waters. The 
Lamanites at this period are described as " a wild, fero 
cious, and blood-thirsty people, wandering about in the 
wilderness with a short skin girded about their loins, and 
their heads shaven, and their skill was in the bow and the 



scimitar and the axe. And many of them did eat 
nothing save it was raw meat." 

But I must stop. I fear the reader is already wearied 
with these foolish vagaries of the imagination, which the 
Mormon prophet palms off upon his followers as the re 
velation of the Most High. To redeem our pledge in giving 
an analysis of the Book of Mormon, we shall be obliged 
to occupy another chapter with these details. If the 
reader cannot make up his mind to follow us, he can skip 
over the next chapter. 





THE question has been frequently asked, why the 
sect whose history we have been attempting to sketch, 
are called Mormons ? The answer to this question 
will be readily suggested to any one who has patience 
to wade through Mr. Spaulding's historical romance. 
From the account that we have already given of the 
Book of Mormon we are led to see the mode by which 
it is pretended that the records of one generation of 
the Nephites were transmitted to another, and how the 
history of each preceding age was preserved. These 
records were engraven upon plates, and the plates, handed 
down from one prophet to another, or from one king to 
another, or from one judge to another the Lord always 
having raised up some one to receive these plates, when 
the person in whose hands they had been previously 
placed was about to die. Mormon, who lived about four 
hundred years after the coming of Christ, while yet a child 
received a command in relation to these sacred deposites. 
The metallic plates which contained the record of all the 
generations of his fathers, from the flight of Lehi from 
Jerusalem to his own time, ultimately came into his hands. 



From these plates he made an abriged record, which, 

taken together, in connection with the record of his own 
times, constitutes the BOOK OF MORMON. Thus we see 
why the book bears this title. For Mormon was a sort 
of Ezra, who compiled the entire sacred canon contained 
in this volume. He lived at a very eventful period, when 
almost all his people had fallen into a fearful apostacy, 
and he lived to see them all destroyed, except twenty-four 
persons. Himself and these sole survivors of his race 
were afterwards cut off with a single exception. His son 
Moroni, one of the survivors, lived to tell the mournful 
tale, and deposite the plates under the hill where Jo Smith 
found them. Mormon took his name from a place where 
the first American church was founded, of which we shall 
hear directly, and where the first candidates for admission 
into the church were baptized, some two hundred years 
before the commencement of the Christian era. He was 
very distinguished in his way, and quite worthy to be the 
founder of this new sect, who have brought to light his 
records, and rescued from oblivion such a bundle of 
marvels, as no one ever heard the like before. 

I am sorry to say I must ask you to follow me through 
a labyrinth of history, if I carry out the plan of furnishing 
an analysis of the Book of Mormon. 

We have already traced the history of the Lamanites 
and Nephites down to the period of King Benjamin, be 
tween three and four hundred years from the period of 
Lehi's flight from Jerusalem. The father of Benjamin 
was Mosiah, who was warned of the Lord to migrate to 
Zarahemla with all his people, that he and they might not 
be destroyed by the Lamanites. Zarahemla was subse- 



quently the scene of. much that is interesting in this his 
tory. It now became the dwelling place of the Nephites. 
Benjamin was the king of the land. He was a sort of 
David. He not only fought nobly, but took great pains to 
establish true religion among the people. He assembled 
them together, and addressed to them powerful exhorta 
tions, preaching to them " repentance and faith on the 
Lord Jesus Christ." The people were so much affected 
that they fell to the earth were converted, and became 
firm believers in Christ. Benjamin then thoroughly in 
structed them in the doctrines of Christianity, and finally 
died about four hundred and seventy six years after Lehi's 
flight. His son, Mosiah, reigned in his stead, who was 
no less eminent in kingly power and righteousness than 
his father. All these facts are given us in what is termed 
the Book of Mosiah, which contains thirteen chapters. 

In the fifth chapter we have quite an episode introduced. 
As we have before noticed, the Nephites had left their first 
residence and gone to dwell in the land of Zarahemla. 
Some of their number, however, desired to go back to the 
land where they formerly dwelt. The first party that went 
out for this purpose were unsuccessful, having had much 
dissension among themselves. The second attempt, made 
under a leader by the name of Zeniff, resulted in their 
making a settlement in that land, and building a city called 
Lehi-Nephi. No intercourse, however, having been kept 
up by this colony with their parent country, the result of 
their enterprise remained unknown in Zarahemla. In the 
reign of Mosiah, however, a number of individuals deter 
mined to go out on an exploring excursion, and to ascer 
tain what had been the fate of their brethren, who had thus 



gone up to the land of Nephi. The leader of this explor 
ing party -was Ammon, a man that afterwards became 
famous among the Nephites. This party travelled a long 
way through the wilderness. I suppose the wilderness, 
as the term is used in the book of Mormon in reference to 
America > means woods or forests. At length they ap 
proached the land of Shilom and Nephi. They had not 
proceeded far before an armed band fell upon them, and 
having taken them prisoners, bound them and brought them 
before the king of the land. His name was Limhi, and, 
as it appeared in the sequel, he was a descendant of Zeniff. 
As soon as Limhi learned Ammon's origin and the errand 
on which he came, he released him and his company from 
their bands, treated them with great hospitality, and in 
voked his and his country's aid to assist them in extricating 
themselves from the oppressive power of the Lamanites. 
Limhi also assembled his people together, and announced 
to them the character of these visiters. He then brought 
out the records of his people, and exhibited them to 
Ammpn and his company. Ammon read the engravings 
upon the plates, which in substance were as follows : 
Zeniff, the founder of this people, after leaving Zarahemla, 
travelled a long way through the wilderness, where he 
encountered various trials, and at length came to the land 
of Lehi-Nephi and Shilom. They found this country in 
possession of the Lamanites. From the king of Laman, 
however, he obtained by treaty the privilege of occupying 
this land. The Lamanites, the old enemies of his nation, 
allowed his people to go on and build cities, and make im 
provements for many years, and then rose up and sought 
to bring them under their dominion, that they might bear 



__ ___ 

the relation of serfs or vassals to them. This attempt was 
rigorously resisted by Zeniff and the colony he had estab 
lished. During the whole life of Zeniff, who now became 
their king, the Lamanites were invariably repulsed, and 
driven off. After his death the kingdom was conferred 
upon his son Noah, who proved to be a very bad and 
depraved man. Iniquity soon began to abound every 
where in the land, and vice to stalk shamelessly abroad 
with brazen front. Just at this time the Lord raised up 
among them a prophet by the name of Abinadi. He was 
very valiant for the truth. He reproved the people for 
their sins, and denounced the judgments of God openly 
against them. This fearless denunciation on the part of 
the prophet awaked the displeasure of the people, who 
determined and sought to slay the man of God. But Abi 
nadi fled and escaped out of their hands. After about two 
years, however, he returned in disguise, so that they did 
not know that it was Abinadi. But as he continued to re 
prove them, and denounce heaven's wrath against them 
they determined to kill him. He however was not at all 
intimidated, but enforced his bold reproofs by repeating to 
them each one of the commands contained in the decalogue. 
This exasperated them the more, and they sought to 
destroy him at once ; but he defied their efforts, declaring 
to them they could have no power over him till he had finish 
ed his message. Accordingly he went on, and preached unto 
them the coming of Christ, exhibiting the whole plan of 
salvation as laid down in the gospel. His preaching 
seemed to make some impression upon the mind of the 
king, but the priests of the land, who were wicked and who 
derided the idea of the coming of Christ succeeded in 



Mor monism. 

getting him put to death. He was accordingly led forth 
and burned at the stake. 

Among those who were present, and heard Abinadi 
testify in reference to the coming and power of Christ, was 
a young man by the name of Alma, whose heart was 
touched by the words of the prophet. Though Abinadi 
perished in the flames, his spirit lived in Alma, who now 
became not only a firm believer, but a preacher of the 
doctrines which Abinadi taught. He, of course, became 
obnoxious both to the king and priests of Lehi-Nephi. 
He, however, persevered in preaching, though he was 
obliged to do it in a private way. His preaching was at 
tended with great effect. And now it was, that those who 
believed jon him resorted to a place called MORMON for 
baptism. The record thus states the matter. " As many 
as did believe him, did go forth to a place which was called 
Mormon, having received its name from the king, being in 
the borders of the land, having been infested, by times, or 
at seasons, by wild beasts. Now there was in Mormon a 
fountain of pure water, and Alma resorted thither, there 
being near the water a thicket of small trees, where he did 
hide himself in the day-time from the searches of the 
king." Here the people came secretly to hear him. And 
Alma instructed them in the doctrines of Christ, and bap 
tized them by immersion in the waters of Mormon. About 
two hundred and four souls were thus baptized. The 
record having recounted these facts, proceeds to say, " This 
was done in Mormon : yea, by the waters of Mormon ; 
yea, the place of Mormon, the waters of Mormon, how 
beautiful are they to the eyes of them who there came to 
the knowledge of their Redeemer; yea, how blessed are 



they, for they shall sing to his praise for ever." It was 
from this place, and these waters, that the individual took 
his name, from whom the sect of the Mormons derives 
their appellation. 

Alrna and his operations at Mormon, however, soon 
became known, and created a great sensation. He and his 
followers were denounced as rebels, and a military force 
was sent out to cut them off. They had now increased to 
nearly five hundred souls. Apprized of the designs of 
King Noah, they immediately fled into the wilderness. 

The Lord did not allow the wickedness of the people of 
Lehi-Nephi to go unpunished. The Lamanites soon came 
upon them, and reduced them to a state of vassalage. 
They were still allowed, however, to keep up the shadow 
of a government, and Limhi succeeded Noah in the king 
dom. They were not only made tributary to the Laman 
ites, but repeated efforts were made on the part of the 
Lamanites to cut them off, and this led them to be always 
in a warlike posture. They were also exposed to assaults 
continually from a banditti that at times came up from the 
wilderness, and fU upon them. When Ammon and his 
party were seized by the armed forces of Limhi they were 
supposed to be one of these marauding bands. This 
explains the cause of the treatment which they at first 

Limhi, having thus explained matters to Ammon, pro 
ceeded to tell him that a short time before, a small party, 
having been sent out by him to search for the land of 
Zarahemla, missed the object of their search, but stumbled 
upon a country, filled with the ruins of ancient buildings, 
the remains of decayed and rust-cankered armour, and the 



bones of men and beasts. Here, also, were found the 
records of this extinct race, " engraven upon plates of ore." 
These plates, which were twenty-four in number, and of 
pure gold, they brought away with them, but the writing 
was in a language which neither Limhi nor any of his 
people understood. They applied therefore, to Ammon to 
see if he could translate it, but he could not. Ammon, 
however, told them that he knew one who could interpret 
these engravings, " even the king of the people which is 
in the land of Zarahemla." He remarked, " he hath 
wherewith he can look and translate all records that are of 
ancient date, and it is a gift from God. And the things 
are called interpreters ; and no man can look in them 
except he be commanded, lest he should look for that he 
had not ought, and he should perish." I suppose these 
must have been the spectacles handed down with the plates 
through which Joseph Smith looked to read and translate 
the book of Mormon. Ammon, in his discourse to Limhi, 
greatly magnified the office of such a looker : " whosoever 
is commanded to look in them, the same is called seer. 
A seer is a revelator, and a prophet also. A seer can 
know of things which has past, and also of things which 
is to come : and a gift which is greater can no man have." 
The preceding quotation will give an idea of the gram 
matical correctness and style of this book. 

Limhi of course was very happy at the idea of having 
the historic facts veiled under these mysterious characters, 
constituting the written language of an extinct race, brought 
to light. In this he was gratified, as we shall subsequently 

But the great matter, which just at this time weighed 



most upon Limhi's mind, was, how he could extricate 
himself from the iron meshes of the net which the Laman- 
ites had cast over his people. Ammon, however, devis 
ed an expedient, by which the whole people could flee 
secretly from Lehi-Nephi. They watched the oppor 
tunity and took their flight and found a secure asylum in 
Zarahemla, where they were received by Mosiah with 
joy, who also received their records, and the record which 
they had found in the country of the extinct people before 
noticed. Here this episode should end. But appended to 
this is a sub-episode in relation to the people, which were 
driven into the wilderness by the people of king Noah. 
The followers of Alma, who were organized into a church 
at Mormon, and fled for their lives, travelled eight days 
through the dense forests, till at length they came to a very 
beautiful and pleasant country. Here they pitched their 
tents, and began to till the ground and erect buildings. 
They offered to make Alma their king, but he declined 
the honour, and dissuaded them from the idea of having a 
kingly government. He was already the founder of their 
Church, and filled among them the office of high priest. 
No irregularities were allowed in ecclesiastical discipline, 
as we are expressly informed that "none received authority 
to preach, or to teach except it were by him from God. 
Therefore he consecrated all their priests and all their 
teachers." The deep secluded glen which they inhabited 
was at length discovered by the roving tribes of the Laman- 
ites, who immediately subjected them to a bondage that 
was peculiarly oppressive. They soon contrived, however, 
to escape from their hands, and fled to the land of Zara 
hemla, which was now becoming a refuge for the oppressed. 



They were there kindly received by Mosiah, shortly after 
the arrival of Limhi and his people. Thus ends this 

All the people of Nephi were now assembled together, 
and also the people of Limhi and Alma, and in their hear 
ing Mosiah read the records both of Zeniff and of Alma ; 
and the Nephites were filled with amazement and joy. 
Alma was called out to address the mighty concourse of 
these gathered tribes. King Limhi and all his people at 
once became converts to the doctrines of Alma, and desired 
baptism. And we are told : "That Alma did go forth into 
the water, and did baptize them ; yea, he did baptize them 
after the manner he did his brethren in the waters of 
Mormon ; yea, and as many as he did baptize, did belong 
to the church of God ; and this because of their belief on 
the words of Alma. And it came to pass that king Mosiah 
granted unto Alma that he might establish churches 
throughout all the land of Zarahemla; and gave him 
power to ordain priests and teachers over every church. 
Now this was done because there was so many people 
that they could not all be governed by one teacher ; neither 
could they all hear the word of God in one assembly ; 
therefore they did assemble themselves together in different 
bodies, being called churches, every church having their 
priests and their teachers, and every priest preaching the 
word according as it was delivered to him by the mouth of 
Alma ; and thus notwithstanding their being many church 
es they were all one church ; yea, even THE CHURCH OF 
GOD ! !" The people had generally, especially those who 
had lived in the land of king Benjamin, become very pious 
Christians. But many of the children, who were now 



growing up to man's estate, being still unregenerate, were 
full of unbelief; and some of them became awfully depraved. 
Among the number were the sons of the king, and also a 
son of Alma, who bore the name of his father. They 
were not only profligate in their lives, but bitter and 
scoffing infidels. While this young Alma, like Saul of 
Tarsus was laying waste the church of God, an angel of God 
appeared to him by the way, and descending in a cloud spoke 
to him in a voice of thunder which caused the earth to shake 
upon which they stood. He instantly fell to the earth, being 
struck dumb and entirely senseless. He continued in this 
state for two days and two nights and then rose up a 
perfectly changed and converted man, and became a most 
zealous preacher of righteousness. Four of the sons of 
Mosiah were also converted, and became preachers. 
These sons of the king were so zealous, that they 
embraced the idea of going on a mission to see if they 
could not convert the Lamanites. The plan having been 
approved by their father, they set off. We shall in due 
time hear what was the result of their efforts. But years 
passed away without any intelligence being received of 
them. Their father was growing old, and he had no one 
on whom to confer the kingdom. He therefore committed 
the records of his people for transmission to young Alma, 
who had now become so pious. He did not do this how 
ever, till he had translated the records of the extinct nation 
found by the people of Limhi, engraven upon twenty-four 
plates of gold. 

These records form what is called the book of Ether, 
in the BOOK OF MORMON, which is placed by Mormon 
nearly at the end of this volume. The substance of this 



record is as follows : The people who inhabited these 
regions, were descendants of Jared and his brother, who 
were among those that were engaged in building the tower 
of Babel. When Jared and his brother saw that God was 
confounding the language of all the builders, they cried 
unto him that he would have compassion on them and not 
confound their language. He did so. They also besought 
him to show them into what part of the earth he would 
have them go. He gave them a satisfactory response, 
guided them a long way through the wilderness, and in 
structed them to build barges to cross the sea. These 
were made air tight. A breathing hole was made in the 
top. To dissipate the darkness, they were instructed to 
obtain sixteen molten stones, which were touched by the 
finger of God, and thus these molten stones became in the 
dark barges like so many stars to enlighten the passengers. 
They embarked in these barges and were miraculously 
conducted over mountain waves to the promised land 
which was America. Here they became mighty nations 
built cities cultivated the arts and finally on account 
of their wickedness became exterminated by dreadful wars 
between themselves. 

The following description is the account given of Mo- 
siah's mode of translating these records : " He translated 
them by the means of those two stones which was fastened 
into two rims of a bow. Now these things was prepared 
from the beginning, and was handed down from generation 
to generation for the purpose of interpreting languages ; and 
they have been kept and preserved by the hand of the 
Lord ; and whosoever has these things is called seer." 



The same spectacles, as we have seen, came down as an 
heir loom to Jo Smith. 

We have now reached the five hundred and ninth year 
after the flight of Lehi. Here the book of Mosiah ends 
giving an account of the termination of the reign of the 
kings, and the commencement of a sort of republican 
government, or what is called the reign of the judges. 
This change was brought about because none of the sons 
of Mosiah would accept the kingdom. Alma was made 
the first chief judge. The book of Alma here follows, 
which contains twenty-nine chapters, and occupies nearly 
two hundred pages of the BOOK OF MORMON. It is prin 
cipally filled with details of the events that happened under 
the reign of the early judges of the wars and contentions 
among the people, of the efforts of Alma and others to 
establish the church, and an account of a war between the 
Nephites and the Lamanites. One of the first cases 
brought before Alma after he sat upon the judgment-seat, 
was that of Nehor, a very large man, and noted for his 
great strength. He preached strange doctrine to the people, 
declaring " that every priest and teacher had ought to 
become popular ; and they ought not to labour with their 
own hands, but that they had ought to be supported by 
the people." This was one of his heresies. The other 
was the doctrine of the universalists, " he testified unto 
the people that all mankind should be saved at the last day 
and that they need not fear nor tremble, but that they 
might lift up their heads and rejoice ; for the Lord had 
created all men, and had also redeemed all men ; and in 
the end all men should have eternal life." Gideon oppos 
ed him, and thereupon Nehor became wroth and slew him. 


, - ^ 


He was accordingly brought before the judgment seat and 
doomed to die. After about five years Amilici, a cunning 
shrewd man, of similar sentiments with Nehor, rose up, 
and tried to lead away the people. He at length was so 
successful that he proposed himself as the king of the 
nation. The question whether he should be king, was 
decided by popular vote, and he was defeated. His ad 
herents however still clave to him, and anointed him king, 
and immediately hereupon there commenced a civil war. 
The insurgents were defeated in battle, and fled to the 
Lamanists, who now came in like an inundation upon 
Zarahemla. But the people of Zarahemla cried unto 
the Lord, and went forth in his strength and utterly de 
feated them. The grotesque appearance of the Lamanites 
at this time is thus described. " The heads of the Laman 
ites were shorn ; and they were naked, save it were a 
skin which was girded about their loins, and also their 
armor, which was girded about them, and their bows and 
their armour, and their stones and their slings. And the 
skins of the Lamanites were dark, according to the mark 
which was set upon their fathers, which was a curse upon 
them because of their transgression, and their rebellion 
against their brethren." 

A season of universal prosperity to the church followed 
this expulsion of the Lamanites, three hundred and fifty 
persons having been baptized by Alma during the seventh 
year of the reign of the judge. At the end of the eighth 
year there was a sensible decline in spiritual things. So 
alarming was the state of things, that Alma, who had hith 
erto held the office of chief judge and high priest, laid 
down altogether the ermine, and took up the crozier, de- 



voting himself wholly to the business of preaching, with 
a view to revive and establish the churches. We have 
sundry specimens of his sermons, which show that he was 
a perfect Boanerges, a real son of thunder, with which 
few modern preachers, however versed in the doctrines of 
Christianity, or skilled in the tactics of Arminian theology, 
would venture to compete. Great effects attended his 
preaching generally in the various cities he visited, but 
when he reached the city of Ammonihah he could make 
no impression upon the minds of the people. He there 
fore gave them up in despair ; but as he was departing an 
angel of God met him and told him to go back, and make 
another effort. He did so, and Amulek, a young man of 
some distinction, was converted, who laboured with him 
in the ministry. But the lawyers opposed them, and tried 
to stir up the people against them. Alma, however, waxed 
mighty in spirit, and confounded, and perfectly silenced 
Zeezrom, the most distinguished of the lawyers. Zeezrom 
himself was ultimately converted, and suffered much per 
secution for his new faith. Alma and Amulek were impri 
soned, abused and every way insulted, but their prison 
doors were broken open, and they delivered in the sight of 
all the people. Among the most prominent topics of 
Alma's preaching was the speedy coming of Christ. He 
declared he would appear in this land in America after his 
resurrection. Before dismissing the subject of Alma and 
his preaching, who is one of the most distinguished cha 
racters in the book, I cannot refrain from transcribing a 
passage from his address to the people of Ammonihah. 
" And now, my beloved brethren, for ye are my brethren, 
and ye had ought to be beloved, and ye had ought to bring 




forth works which is mete for repentance, seeing that your 
hearts have been grossly hardened against the word of 
God, and, seeing that ye are a lost and a fallen people." 

We have next an episode, giving an account of the mis 
sionary adventures of the sons of Mosiah, in their attempts 
to evangelize the Lamanites. These four sons most un 
expectedly made their appearance in the land of Zara- 
hemla after an absence of fourteen years. After they first 
reached the land of the Lamanites, they were seized and 
made slaves in the service of several princes that reigned 
there. Ammon, whose adventures are related with the 
most minuteness, was a perfect Guy of Warwick. He 
could encounter and overcome by his single arm, hundreds 
of men, all trying at the same time to overpower him. He 
gave a specimen of his prowess in this way, in protecting 
the king's flock, which he was leading to water, against the 
efforts of a band of hostile shepherds who tried to scatter 
and disperse the flock. The fame thereof came to the king. 
He was called into his presence. This opened the way 
for him to preach the Gospel to him. While he was 
speaking the power of the Holy Spirit was displayed in 
such a way that the king fell to the ground, and his wife 
and servants. They were, of course, all converted. Am 
mon now became a great man, and though he encountered 
much opposition, and many trials, he and his brethren suc 
ceeded in converting all the Kings and Queens, and most 
of the people of the Lamanites. They seem, generally, 
previous to their conversion, to have had, what in modern 
times is called the power. , They were most generally 
struck down under the word, and after remaining insensible 
awhile, they rose up and began to shout praises to the 



Most High, being perfectly transformed. These converted 
people were called Anti-Nephi-Lehies. Soon the more 
fierce tribes of the Lamanites who still remained uncon 
verted, made war upon these ; and as they seem with these 
new views to have adopted the doctrine of non-resistance, 
they were in danger of being exterminated. Hence by the 
suggestion of the four missionaries, they determined to 
emigrate to Zarahemla. They had already reached the 
border of the land, and when the king's sons met Alma, 
their principal errand was to ask permission for this people 
to dwell in the land of the Nephites. This request was 
of course granted. 

Alma gave very long lectures or charges to his sons, and 
especially to Helaman, to whom he committed all the sa 
cred plates, the interpreters, and the director which guided 
Lehi through the wilderness. To him he also uttered this 
prediction, " Behold I perceive that this very people, the 
Nephites, according to the spirit which is in me, in four 
hundred years from the time that Jesus Christ shall mani 
fest himself unto them, shall dwindle in unbelief; yea, and 
then shall they see wars, and pestilences, yea, famines and 
blood-shed, even until the people of Nephi shall become 

Alma, after uttering this prophecy, disappeared in the 
same mysterious way that Moses did, and no man knoweth 
his grave unto this day. At this period all who believed in 
Christ took upon them the name of Christians. Various 
wars now raged between the Lamanites and Nephites. 
The people of Nephi erected many forts and high mounds 
to secure themselves from the invasion of their enemies. 

The Book of Helaman, which consists of five chapters, 




opens with the fortieth year of the reign of the Judges. It 
details sad accounts of dissensions and war, and strange 
alternations of prosperity and adversity to the church. A 
man by the name of Nephi, who was now chief judge, imi 
tated Alma, and laying down his civil office, became a 
great preacher and prophet, performing miracles and mighty 
wonders. He went even to the Lamanites, and was so 
successful in converting them, that he arrested the tide of 
war and restored peace to the land. The earth shook, the 
heavens were opened, and angels came down at his voice. 
After Nephi, rose up Samuel, a Lamanite, who predicted 
that Christ would come in five years, and that on the day 
he was born, though the sun would go down as usual, there 
would be no night, it would continue as light as day. This 
was to be the sign. Another sign to attend his death, 
which was to take place in the thirty-fourth year after his 
birth, was three whole days of darkness, in which there 
were to be thunderings and lightnings, and earthquakes, 
and the rending of rocks and cleaving of hills. According 
to the testimony in the next book, at the end of five years 
the sign of his birth occurred, two days succeeding each 
other without any intervening night. The Nephites, there 
fore, knew that Christ had come. They accordingly reck 
oned their time from this period, regarding it as the com 
mencement of a new era. The Lamanites that were con 
verted now became white as the Nephites. At the end of 
thirty-three years, the signs that were foretold would ac 
company the death of Christ, appeared. There was a 
great tempest, and terrible thunder ; the earth shook, as 
though about to divide asunder. Vivid lightning ran along 
on the ground, cities were overturned and buried in the 



midst of the sea a terrible darkness came over the land for 
three days and a great mourning and howling and weep 
ing among the people. The voice of Christ was heard, 
amid the awful tempest, denouncing woes upon sinners, 
and offering grace and salvation to all who would repent 
and believe. After this Christ made his personal appear 
ance on the earth, coming down from heaven with great 
glory. There were several occasions on which he ap 
peared, at which times he delivered to the assembled thou 
sands all the instruction, and performed nearly all the mi 
racles recorded in the New Testament, and then he was 
again taken up out of their sight. He ordained twelve 
apostles and gave them singular gifts. He instituted bap 
tism and the Lord's supper, blessed the children and healed 
the sick, but I am obliged to pass over all the details of 
these, as this chapter is already so long. Now all were 
baptized in the name of the Trinity. All the Nephites, 
and nearly all the Lamanites, became converted. For 
about fifty years the earth was almost a perfect paradise. 
But then the love of many began to wax cold, and iniquity 
to abound. Terrible wars ensued. The Nephites apos 
tatized more and more from the faith, till at the end'of four 
hundred years after Christ they became entirely destroyed, 
and Mormon, as we have said, was one of the last of his 
race, who committed the records of this people to his son, 
Moroni, who deposited them in the hill, where Joseph 
Smith found them. This is an outline of this historical 
romance, which the deluded Mormons now regard as a 
revelation from God. In this brief sketch we have been 
obliged to omit many things that attracted our attention ; 
but I suppose that our readers are exceedingly glad we have 
reached the end, as the writer certainly is. 





SINCE preparing the preceding chapters for the press, 
there have come into the author's hands several documents, 
that seem to throw additional light upon the origin and 
authorship of the Book of Mormon. These documents 
consist of statements made by Mr. John Spalding, now re 
siding in Crawford county, Pa., the brother of Rev. Mr. 
Spalding by Mrs. Martha Spalding, the wife of Mr. 
John Spalding by four gentlemen, residing in Conne- 
aut, Ashtabula county, Ohio, the very spot where Mr. 
Spalding' s historical romance was originally written, and 
by several others acquainted with the facts in reference to 
Mr. Spalding's manuscript. From these statements we 
make the following extracts : 

Mr. John Spalding, having given an account of the 
education of his brother, his preparation for the ministry, 
his subsequent relinquishment of its duties, and his en 
gagement in mercantile business, says, " In a few years 
he* failed in business, and, in the year 1809, removed to 
Conneaut, in Ohio. The year following, I removed to 
Ohio, and found him engaged in building a forge. I made 
him a visit in about three years after ; and found that he had 
failed, and become considerably involved in debt. He then 



told me he had been writing a book, which he intended to 
have printed, the avails of which he thought would enable 
him to pay all his debts. The book was entitled the 
* Manuscript Found,' of which he read to me many 
passages. It was an historical romance of the first settlers 
of America, endeavouring to show that the American In 
dians are the descendants of the Jews, or the lost tribes. 
It gave a detailed account of their journey from Jerusalem, 
by land and sea, till they arrived in America, under the 
command of Nephi and Lehi. They afterwards had quar 
rels and contentions, and separated into two distinct na 
tions, one of which he denominated Nephites and the other 
Lamanites. Cruel and bloody wars ensued, in which great 
multitudes were slain. They buried their dead in large 
heaps, which caused the mounds so common in this 
country. Their arts, sciences and civilization were brought 
into view, in order to account for all the curious antiquities, 
found in various parts of North and South America. I 
have recently read the Book of Mormon, and to my great 
surprise I find nearly the same historical matter, names, 
&c. as they were in my brother's writings. I well re 
member that he wrote in the old style, and commenced 
about every sentence with * and it came to pass,' or 
' now it came to pass,' the same as in the Book of Mor 
mon, and according to the best of my recollection and be 
lief, it is the same as my brother Solomon wrote, with 
the exception of the religious matter. By what means : t 
has fallen into the hands of Joseph Smith Jr., I am unable 
to determine." 

Mrs. Martha Spalding's testimony is very similar. She 
says, " I was personally acquainted with Solomon Spald- 
ing, about twenty years ago. I was at his house a short 


Mormon ism. 

time before he left Conneaut ; he was then writing a his 
torical novel founded upon the first settlers of America. 
He represented them as an enlightened and warlike people. 
He had for many years contended that the aborigines of 
America were the descendants of some of the lost tribes 
of Israel, and this idea he carried out in the book in ques 
tion. The lapse of time which has intervened, prevents 
my recollecting but few of the leading incidents of his 
writings ; but the names of Nephi and Lehi are yet fresh 
in my memory, as being the principal heroes of his tale. 
They were officers of the company which first came off 
from Jerusalem. He gave a particular account of their 
journey by land and sea, till they arrived in America, after 
which, disputes arose between the chiefs, which caused 
them to separate into different lands, one of which was 
called Lamanites and the other Nephites. Between these 
were recounted tremendous battles, which frequently 
covered the ground with the slain ; and their being buried 
in large heaps was the cause of the numerous mounds in 
the country. Some of these people he represented as be 
ing very large. I have read the Book of Mormon, which 
has brought fresh to my recollection the writings of Solo 
mon Spalding ; and I have no manner of doubt that the 
historical part of it, is the same that I read and heard 
read, more than twenty years ago." 

Mr. Henry Lake, residing at Conneaut, gives the fol 
lowing statement : " I left the state of New York, late in 
the year 1810, and arrived at this place, about the 1st of 
January following. Soon after my arrival, I formed a co 
partnership with Solomon Spalding, for the purpose of re 
building a forge which he had commenced a year or two 
before. He very frequently read to me from a manuscript 



which he was writing, which he entitled the * Manuscript 
Found,' and which he represented as being found in this 
town. I spent many hours in hearing him read said writ 
ing, and became well acquainted with its contents. He 
wished me to assist him in getting his production printed, 
alleging that a book of that kind would meet with a rapid 
sale. I designed doing so, but the forge not meeting our 
anticipations, we failed in business, when I declined hav 
ing any thing to do with the publication of the book. This 
book represented the American Indians as the descendants 
of the lost tribes, gave an account- of their leaving Jerusa 
lem, their contentions and wars, which were many and 
great. One time, when he was reading to me the tragic 
account of Laban, I pointed out to him what I considered 
an inconsistency, which he promised to correct ; but by 
referring to the Book of Mormon, I find to my surprise 
that it stands there just as he read it to me then. Some 
months ago I borrowed the Golden Bible, put it into my 
pocket, carried it home, and thought no more of it. About 
a week after, my wife found the book in my coat pocket, 
as it hung up, and commenced reading it aloud as I lay 
upon the bed. She had not read twenty minutes till I was 
astonished to find the same passages in it that Spalding had 
read to me more than twenty years before, from his ' Manu 
script Found.' Since that, I have more fully examined 
the said Golden Bible, and have no hesitation in saying 
that the historical part of it is principally, if not wholly 
taken from the ' Manuscript Found.' " 

Mr. John N. Miller, residing in Springfield, Pa., who 
was then in the employ of Mr. Lake, and boarded in the 
family of Mr. Spalding, corroborates the preceding state 
ment. After having mentioned being introduced to the 



manuscript of Mr. Spalding, he says, " It purported to be 
the history of the first settlement of America, before dis 
covered by Columbus. He brought them off from Jeru 
salem, under their leaders ; detailing their travels by land 
and water, their manners, customs, laws, wars, &c. 

11 1 have recently examined the Book of Mormon, and 
find in it the writings of Solomon Spalding, from begin 
ning to end, but mixed up with Scripture and other reli 
gious matter, which I did not meet with in the Manu 
script Found.' Many of the passages in the Mormon 
Book are verbatim from Spalding, and others in part. 
The names of Nephi, Lehi, Moroni, and in fact all the 
principal names, are brought fresh to my recollection, by 
the Golden Bible." 

Mr. Aaron Wright, of Conneaut, remarks, " I first be 
came acquainted with Solomon Spalding in 1808 or U, 
when he commenced building a forge on Gonneaut creek. 
When at his house, one day, he showed and read to me a 
history he was writing, of the lost tribes of Israel, pur 
porting that they were the first settlers of America, and 
that the Indians were their descendants. Upon this sub 
ject we had frequent conversations. He traced their jour 
ney from Jerusalem to America, as it is given in the Book 
of Mormon, excepting the religious matter. The histori 
cal part of the Book of Mormon, I know to be the same 
as I read and heard read from the writings of Spalding, 
more than twenty years ago ; the names more especially 
are the same without any alteration. He told me his ob 
ject was to account for all the fortifications, &c. to be found 
in this country." 

Mr. Oliver Smith, of Conneaut, gives the following 
statement : " When Solomon Spalding first came to this 



place, he purchased a tract of land, surveyed it out and 
commenced selling it. While engaged in this business, 
he boarded at my house, in all nearly six months. All 
his leisure hours were occupied in writing a historical 
novel, founded upon the first settlers of this country. He 
said he intended to trace their journey from Jerusalem, by 
land and sea, till their arrival in America, give an account of 
their arts, sciences, civilization, wars and contentions. In 
this way, he would give a satisfactory account of all of the 
old mounds, so common to this country. During the time 
he was at my house, I read and heard read one hundred 
pages or more. Nephi and Lehi were by him represented 
as leading characters, when they first started for America. 
Their main object was to escape the judgments which they 
supposed were coming upon the old world. But no reli 
gious matter was introduced, as I now recollect. When 
I heard the historical part of the Book of Mormon related, 
I at once said it was the writings of old Solomon Spalding. 
Soon after, I obtained the book, and on reading it, found 
much of it the same as Spalding had written, more than 
twenty years before." 

Mr. Nahum Howard, of the same place, gives a similar 
statement. We will detain the reader only by a single ad 
ditional statement. Mr. Artemas Cunningham, of Perry, 
Geauga county, relates the following facts : " In the month 
of October, 1811, I went from the township of Madison to 
Conneaut, for the purpose of securing a debt due me from 
Solomon Spalding. I tarried with him nearly two days, 
for the purpose of accomplishing my object, which I was 
finally unable to do. I found him destitute of the means 
of paying his debts. His only hope of ever paying his 
debts, appeared to be upon the sale of a book, which he 



had been writing. He endeavoured to convince me from 
the nature and character of the work, that it would meet 
with a ready sale. Before showing me his manuscripts, 
he went into a verbal relation of its outlines, saying that 
it was a fabulous or romantic history of the first settlement 
of this country, and as it purported to have been a record 
found buried in the earth, or in a cave, he had adopted the 
ancient or Scripture style of writing. He then presented 
his manuscripts, when we sat down and spent a good share 
of the night, in reading them, and conversing upon them. 
I well remember the name of Nephi, which appeared to be 
the principal hero of the story. The frequent repetition 
of the phrase, ' I Nephi,' I recollect as distinctly as though 
it was but yesterday, although the general features of the 
story have passed from my memory. The Mormon Bible 
I have partially examined, and am fully of the opinion that 
Solomon Spalding had written its outlines before he left 

With such a cloud of witnesses, commentary seems 
quite unnecessary. 





Steps leading to the Mormon emigration to the West Conversion 
of Parley P. Pratt Mission to the Lamanites Sidney Rigdon 
His avowed conversion Fanatic scenes at Kirtland Dr. Rosa's let 
ter Mr. Howe's statement Smith's removal. 

Jo SMITH, who aspired to the high character of a prophet 
of God, was far more successful in gathering early dis 
ciples than Mahomet. His own family, and numerous 
coadjutors, being in the secret with himself, and hoping 
to build up their fortunes by this scheme, became very 
zealous converts to the Mormon imposture. 

There was not much ground for Smith to hope to 
make converts in the neighbourhood where this fabrication 
was got up. In addition to his own family, Harris, Cow- 
dery, Whitmer, and those whom they could personally 
influence, a few converts were obtained in the neighbour 
ing towns, by the marvellous pretensions which the pro 
phet set up. These, however, were either mere adventur 
ers, or the firm believers in ghosts and hobgoblins. Soon 
after the Book of Mormon was issued from the press, a 
person by the name of Parley P. Pratt, passed through 
Palmyra, and hearing of the " golden Bible," sought an 



interview with the prophet, and immediately became a 
convert. This individual resided in Lorrain co., Ohio, 
and was very intimate with Sidney Rigdon. Rigdon was 
professedly a Campbellite Baptist preacher. He resided 
in the county of Geauga, and but a few miles from Kirt- 
land, which afterwards became the head-quarters of the 
Mormons. About the time that Pratt visited the prophet, 
and gave in his adhesion to the Mormons, an expedition 
was fitted out for the Western Country, under the com 
mand of Cowdery, to convert the Lamanites, as the western 
Indians were called by them. The persons sent on this 
mission were Cowdery, Pratt, Peterson, and Whitmer. 
Under the guidance of Pratt, they reached the residence 
of Rigdon in Mentor, Ohio, the last of October, 1830. 
Rigdon at first received them apparently with suspicion, 
and objected to the Mormon scheme, and the authority of 
the prophet, but in the course of two days, his objections 
gave way, and he avowed his conversion to the Mormon 
faith. He very soon started off in order to have a personal 
interview with the prophet. Smith of course was prepared 
to receive him, and declared there had just been made to 
him a revelation from the Lord in relation to this new con 
vert. This pretended heavenly communication uses such 
language as the following " Behold, verily, verily, I say 
unto my servant Sidney, I have looked upon thee and thy 
works ; I have heard thy prayers, and prepared thee for a 
greater work thou art blessed for thou shall do great 
things. Behold thou wast sent forth even as John to pre 
pare the way before me, and Elijah which should come, 
and thou knewest it not thou didst baptize by water unto 
repentance, but they received not the Holy Ghost; but 
now I give unto you a commandment, that thou shalt bap- 



tize by water, and fire of the Holy Ghost, by laying on of 
hands, even as the Apostles of old." 

There is great reason to believe that this meeting of 
Smith and Rigdon was preconcerted and that the pre 
tended mission to the Indians was devised to form a plau 
sible pretext for Rigdon, to come out openly in favour of 
the Mormons and thus to conceal more effectually the 
hand which he might previously have had in concocting 
this scheme of imposture. 

Certain it is " their plans of deception appear to have 
been more fully matured and developed after the meeting 
of Smith and Rigdon. The latter being found very inti 
mate with the Scriptures, a close reasoner, and as fully 
competent to make white appear black, and black white, 
as any other man ; and at all times prepared to establish, 
to the satisfaction of great numbers of people, the negative 
or affirmative, of any and every question, from Scripture^ 
he was forthwith appointed to promulgate all the absurdi 
ties and ridiculous pretensions of Mormonism, ' and call 
on the Holy Prophets to prove' all the words of Smith." 
A revelation was soon received, ** that Kirtland, the resi 
dence of Rigdon and his brethren, was to be the eastern 
border of the ' promised land,' ' and from thence to the 
Pacific Ocean.' On this laad the * New Jerusalem, 
the city of Refuge,' was to be built. Upon it, all true 
Mormons were to assemble, to escape the destruction of 
the world, which was soon to take place." 

Those sent on the mission t& the Lamanites having 
spent some time at Kirtland, succeeded in making a number 
of converts. After Cowdery and his associates, began to 
develope the peculiarities of their system, we are told that 
scenes of the most wild, frantic and horrible fanaticism 



ensued. " They pretended that the power of miracles 
was about to be given to all those who embraced the new 
faith, and commenced communicating the Holy Spirit, by 
laying their hands upon the heads of the converts, which 
operation, at first, produced an instantaneous prostration 
of body and mind. Many would fall upon the floor, 
where they would lie for a long time, apparently lifeless. 
They thus continued these enthusiastic exhibitions for 
several weeks. The fits usually came on, during or after 
their prayer-meetings, which were held nearly every even 
ing. The young men and women were more particularly 
subject to this delirium. They would exhibit all the apish 
acts imaginable, making the most ridiculous grimaces, 
creeping upon their hands and feet, rolling upon the frozen 
ground, go through with all the Indian modes of warfare, 
such as knocking down, scalping, &c. At other times, 
they would run through the fields, get upon stumps, 
preach to imaginary congregations, enter the water, and 
perform all the ceremony of baptizing. Many would 
have fits of speaking all the different Indian dialects, which 
none could understand. Again, at the dead hour of night, 
the young men might be seen running over the fields and 
hills in pursuit, as they said, of the balls of fire, lights, 
&c., which they saw moving through the atmosphere." 

Three of the young converts pretended to have re 
ceived commissions to preach from the skies, after having 
first jumpt into the air as high as they could. All these 
transactions were believed to be from the Spirit of God. 
They very soon numbered in this region a hundred con 
verts. To these converts Rigdon, soon after joining Smith 
at Manchester, wrote a letter, disclosing among other things 
that Kirtland was to be the seat of empire and that they 



were dwelling on their eternal inheritance, and that the land 
of promise extended from that place to the Pacific ocean.; 
The facts above stated are principally taken from a 
volume entitled " MORMONISM UNVEILED," sent the author 
by a most estimable clergyman of the Episcopal Church, 
residing at Ashtabula, Ohio, with the information that this 
volume is regarded by all candid and respectable people in 
the neighbourhood of the Mormon settlement, as a correct 
and fair statement of facts. It may tend to throw some 
new light upon some of the actors in this grand drama of 
deception to insert a portion of the correspondence that 
led the clergyman just referred to, to forward this volume 
to the author. The Rev. Mr. Quinan, who now resides 
in Philadelphia, having formerly lived in the neighbour 
hood of Kirtland, was requested by the author to open a 
correspondence with some intelligent person in that neigh 
bourhood, who would be able to give some account of the 
first emigration of the Mormons to Kirtland, and the line 
of operations which they had there pursued. Mr. Quinan's 

letter was addressed to Dr. A. Hawley. Dr. H put 

this letter into the hands of the clergyman above alluded 
to, who having obtained the following communication from 
Dr. Rosa, forwarded it to the author, with a postscript of 
his own appended, as will be seen in the insertion below. 
Dr. Rosa's letter is dated Painesville, Ohio, June 3d, 
1841, from which we make the following extract. 

* * * "I think the history of Mormonism as 
published by E. D. Howe a copy of which can be ob 
tained in our place contains all the material truths con 
nected with the rise and progress of that miserable decep 
tion. There are occasionally new doctrines introduced 
and incorporated with their faith, such as being baptized 


Mo rrnonisrn. 

for the dead. This is a common custom here. When a 
member is satisfied that his father, mother, or brother, or 
any other friend is in hell, he steps forward and offers him 
self to the church in baptism for that individual, and when 
properly baptized the tormented individual will instanta 
neously emerge from his misery into perfect happiness. 
There are many such follies which the simple hearted are 
ready and willing to believe. There is no permanent 
separation in the society. There were a few seceders a 
few years since, some of whom left them entirely, and be 
came infidels, and others held to the original purity of the 
doctrines as they termed it. 

As to Martin Harris of late I have heard but little of 
him. My acquaintance with him induces me to believe 
him a monomaniac ; he is a man of great loquacity and 
very unmeaning, ready at all times to dispute the ground 
of his doctrines with any one. He was one of the seceders, 
and for a time threatened the Mormons with exposure, as 
I have been informed ; but where he is now I cannot say. 

Jo Smith is regarded as an inspired man by all the 

Sidney Rigdon is at the western settlement; he em 
braced the Mormon religion in the latter part of October, 
1830. See page 102 of the book as published by E. D. 
Howe, above referred to. 

In the early part of the year either in May or June 
I was in company with Sidney Rigdon, and rode with him 
on horseback a few miles. Our conversation was princi 
pally upon the subject of religion, as he was at that time a 
very popular preacher of the denomination calling them 
selves disciples' or Campbellites. He remarked to me, 
that it was time for a new religion to spring up ; that man- 



kind were all rife and ready for it. I thought he alluded 
to the Campbellite doctrine he said it would not be long 
before something would make its appearance he also 
said that he thought of leaving for Pennsylvania, and 
should be absent for some months. I asked him how long 
he said it would depend upon circumstances. I began 
to think a little strange of his remarks, as he was a minis 
ter of the Gospel. 

I left Ohio that fall, and went to the state of New York, 
to visit my friends, who lived in Waterloo not far from 
the mine of golden Bibles. In November I was informed 
that my old neighbour, E. Partridge, and the Rev. Sidney 
Rigdon were in Waterloo, and that they both had become 
the dupes of Jo Smith's necromancies : it then occurred 
to me that Rigdon's new religion had made its appearance, 
and when I became informed of the Spalding manuscript 
I was confirmed in the opinion that Rigdon was at least 
accessary if not the principal in getting up this farce. Any 
information that I can give shall be done cheerfully. 
Respectfully, your obedient servant, 



June 5th, 1841. 


The above letter I have obtained in answer to several 
questions respecting Mormons and Mormonism, transmit 
ted by the Rev. Mr. Quinan to Dr. A. Hawley, of this 
county, from you. This letter of Dr. Rosa's, together 
with the book, * Mormonism Unveiled" which accompa 
nies it, I send as the best answers to your questions, and 



the best expositions of Mormonism which can be obtained. 
It is believed by candid and respectable people in the 
vicinity of the Mormon Temple, that Mr. Howe's book 
' Mormonism Unveiled" is very correct. As to the de 
ponents in reference to Spalding manuscript, at New 
Salem (now Conneaut), I have been acquainted with them 
for thirty years (excepting Miller), and believe them to 
be credible and respectable persons. 

It is indeed as'tonishing that so low an imposture should 
ever have been countenanced at all ; much more so tljat 
hundreds of English converts should recently have come 
over to it, and that four hundred more should now be 
daily expected to take shipping at Buffalo, in order to pass 
up our Lakes to join the Western Mormons ! 

Rector of St. Peter's, Ashtabula, Ohio. 

In the conclusion of Mr. Howe's book referred to in 
the preceding letter we were particularly struck with the 
following statement, which seems to account perfectly for 
Rigdon's easy faith, and to identify him with this scheme 
of imposture from its very origin. The reader will recol 
lect that Mrs. Davison states that the manuscript was 
lent to Mr. Patterson, the publisher of a newspaper in 
Pittsburg, with whose office Rigdon was connected. The 
author of the volume above referred to, says : " It was 
inferred at once that some light might be shed upon this 
subject, and the mystery revealed, by applying to Patter 
son & Lambdin, in Pittsburg. But here again death had 
interposed a barrier. That establishment was dissolved 
and broken up many years since, and Lambdin died about 
eight years ago. Mr. Patterson says he has no recollec- 



tion of any such manuscript being brought there for pub 
lication, neither would he have been likely to have seen it, 
as the business of printing was conducted wholly by 
Lambdin at that time. He says, however, that many 
manuscript books and pamphlets were brought to the office 
about that time, which remained upon their shelves for 
years, without being printed or even examined. Now, there 
is the strongest presumption that Spalding's manuscript, (or 
a copy of it) remained there in seclusion, till about the year 
1823 or '24, at which time Sidney Rigdon located him 
self in that city. We have been credibly informed that he 
was on terms of intimacy with Lambdin, being seen fre 
quently in his shop. Rigdon resided in Pittsburg about 
three years, and during the whole of that time, as he has 
since frequently asserted, abandoned preaching and all 
other employment, for the purpose of studying the Bible. 
He left there, arid came into the county where he now re 
sides, about the time Lambdin died, and commenced 
preaching some new points of doctrine, which were after 
wards found to be inculcated in the Mormon Bible. He 
resided in this vicinity about four years previous to the ap 
pearance of the book, during which time he made several 
long visits to Pittsburg, and perhaps to the Susquehanna, 
where Smith was then digging for money, or pretending 
to be translating plates. It may be observed also, that 
about the time Rigdon left Pittsburg, the Smith family be 
gan to tell about finding a book that would contain a his 
tory of the first inhabitants of America, and that two years 
had elapsed before they finally got possession of it. 

" We are, then, irresistibly led to this conclusion ; that 
Lambdin, after having failed in business, had recourse to 
the old manuscripts then in his possession, in order to raise 


M or monism. 

the wind, by a book speculation, and placed the " Manu 
script Found," of Spalding, in the hands of Rigdon, to be 
embellished, altered, and added to, as he might think ex 
pedient ; and three years' study of the Bible we should 
deem little time enough to garble it, as it is transferred to 
the Mormon book. The former dying, left the latter the 
sole proprietor, who was obliged to resort to his wits, and 
in a miraculous way to bring it before the world ; for in no 
other manner could such a book be published without great 
sacrifice. And where could a more suitable character be 
found than Jo Smith, whose necromantic fame and arts of 
deception, had already extended to a considerable distance ? 
That Lambdin was a person every way qualified and fitted 
for such an enterprise, we have the testimony of his partner 
in business, and others of his acquaintance. Add to all 
these circumstances, the facts, that Rigdon had prepared 
the minds in a great measure, of nearly a hundred of those 
who attended his ministration, to be in readiness to em 
brace the first mysterious ism that should be presented 
the appearance of Cowdery at his residence as soon as the 
Book was printed his sudden conversion, after many pre 
tensions to disbelieve it his immediately repairing to the 
residence of Smith, three hundred miles distant, where he 
was forthwith appointed an elder, high-priest, and a scribe 
to the prophet the pretended vision that his residence in 
Ohio was the " promised land," the immediate removal 
of the whole Smith family thither, where they were soon 
raised from a state of poverty to comparative affluence. 
We, therefore, must hold out Sidney Rigdon to the world 
as being the original * author and proprietor' of the whole 
Mormon conspiracy, until further light is elicited upon the 
lost writings of Solomon Spalding." 



We proceed, however, with our narrative. Rigdon 
tarried with Smith in Manchester about two months, re 
ceiving revelations, preaching in that vicinity, and trying 
to establish the truth of Mormonism. But meeting with 
little success, he returned to Kirtland, being followed in a 
few days by the prophet and his connections. This hap 
pened early in 1831. ' From this point in the history of 
this delusion, it began to spread with considerable rapidity. 
Nearly all of their male converts, however ignorant and 
worthless, were forthwith transformed into 4 Elders,' and 
sent forth to proclaim, with all their wild enthusiasm, the 
wonders and mysteries of Mormonism. All those having 
a taste for the marvellous, and delighting in novelties, 
flocked to hear them. Many travelled fifty and an hundred 
miles to the throne of the prophet, in Kirtland, to hear 
from his own mouth the certainty of his excavating a bible 
and spectacles. Many, even in the New England States, af 
ter hearing the frantic story of some of these elders,' would 
forthwith place their all into a wagon, and wend their 
way to the promised land,' in order, as they supposed, 
to escape the judgments of Heaven, which were soon to 
be poured out upon the land. The State of New York, 
they were privately told, would most probably be sunk, 
unless the people thereof believed in the pretensions of 
Smith. t 

11 On the arrival of Smith in Kirtland, he appeared as 
tonished at the wild enthusiasm and scalping perform 
ances, of his proselytes there, as heretofore related. He 
told them that he had enquired of the Lord concerning the 
matter, and had been informed that it was all the work of the 
Devil. The disturbances, therefore, ceased. Thus we 



see that the Devil, for the time being, held full sway in 
making converts to Mormonism."* 

We have already stated that Sidney Rigdon, previous to 
his conversion to the Mormons, was a preacher among the 
Campbellite Baptists, and enjoyed considerable popularity. 
After his return to Kirtland, with his new companions and 
new faith, Elder Campbell, the founder of the sect to 
which he had previously belonged, sent him a challenge 
for a public debate, in which he would undertake to show 
the foolish absurdities, shameless pretensions, and manifest 
imposture of the whole Mormon scheme. This challenge, 
however, Rigdon very prudently declined accepting. 

* Mormonism Unveiled. 





Mission to Missouri Cause that led to emigration Settlement at 
Independence Change in operations Gift of tongues Rule for 
speaking and interpreting. 

COWDERY and those connected with his mission, after 
having made the converts we have noticed at Kirtland in 
the autumn of 1830, proceeded on still farther to the west, 
in order to convert the Indians. They at length set down 
in the western part of Missouri. 

The following extract from the volume already referred 
to, will explain the cause that led the Mormons to think 
of emigrating to Missouri. 

* The Mormons soon began to assemble in considera 
ble numbers at and about Kirtland, the supposed eternal 
inheritance,' and those who were able, bought land ; but 
the greater part of their dupes had thus far been the poor 
and needy, and came there with a view of enjoying all 
things * in common,' as such doctrine had gone forth. 
Many, however, found out their mistake after their 
arrival ; and the revelation appeared to be only that the 
prophet and some of his relations should be supported by 
the church. In consequence of their inability to purchase 
lands adjoining head-quarters, they were scattered about 



in several townships, much exposed to ' wild beasts,' 
and subject to have their faith shaken by the influence of 
reason. Several renounced it. They were daily running 
to the prophet with queries and doubts which were con 
stantly arising upon their minds. He generally satis 
fied them by explaining; nevertheless, they annoyed 
him much and the necessity of withdrawing them from 
the influences which surrounded them became apparent ; 
hence, their removal to Missouri, where they could, in 
time, purchase all the land which they should need at 
a low rate, and become a * distinct people.' 

" As before noticed, Cowdery and his companions, pro 
ceeded on to the west, with the avowed intention of con 
verting the Indians, under a command of the Lord. On 
their way they tried their skill on several tribes, but 
made no proselytes, although their deluded brethren at 
home could daily see them, in visions, baptising whole 
tribes. They finally arrived at the western line of the 
State of Missouri, late in the fall of 1830, with the inten 
tion of proceeding into the Indian country, but were 
stopped by the agents of the general government, under 
an act of Congress, to prevent the white people from 
trading or settling among them. They then took up their 
winter quarters in the village of Independence, about 
twelve miles from the State line. Here they obtained 
employment during the winter. In the following spring, 
one of them returned to Kirtland, with a flattering account 
of the country about Independence. About the first of 
June, the prophet assembled all his followers, for the pur 
pose of a great meeting, at which time it was given out 
that marvellous events were to take place. Here many 
new attempts were made by Smith to perform miracles 



and otherwise to deceive his followers. Previous to this 
time, it should be remarked, nearly all the Mormonites 
had arrived from the State of New York, under a revela 
tion, of course, to take possession of the ' promised 
land.' There were in all about fifty families. At the 
above mentioned meeting a long revelation was manu 
factured, commanding all the leading men and Elders to 
depart forthwith for the western part of Missouri, naming 
each one separately, informing them that only two should 
go together, and that every two should take separate 
roads, preaching by the way. Only about two weeks 
were allowed them to make preparations for the journey, 
and most of them left what business they had to be closed 
by others. Some left large families, with their crops 
upon the ground, and embarked for a distant land, from 
which they have not yet returned. 

" On arriving at the village of Independence, they pro 
ceeded to purchase a lot of land, upon which the prophet 
directed Rigdon and Cowdery to perform the mock cere 
mony of laying the corner stone of a city, which he called 
Zion. Of the future prosperity and magnificence of this 
city, many marvellous revelations were had by the prophet 
and many more marvellous conjectures formed by his dis 
ciples. Among others, it was said that it would in a few 
years exceed in splendor every thing known in ancient 
times. Its streets were to be paved with gold ; all that 
escaped the general destruction which was soon to take 
place, would there assemble with all their wealth ; the ten 
lost tribes of Israel had been discovered in their retreat, 
in the vicinity of the North Pole, where they had for 
ages been secluded by immense barriers of ice, and be- 



came vastly rich : the ice in a few years was to be melted 
away, when those tribes, with St. John and some of the 
Nephites, which the Book of Mormon had immortalized, 
would be seen making their appearance in the new city, 
loaded with immense quantities of gold and silver. 

" The prophet and his life-guard of Elders, stayed in 
their city about two weeks. Revelations were had for a 
part of them to return to Ohio, a part to stay and take 
charge of the city, and a part to commence preaching in 
the region round about.' Much dissatisfaction was 
manifested by some as to the selection of the site, and the 
general appearance of the country. Smith, Rigdon and 
Cowdery returned to the old head-quarters in Kirtland. 
Their followers immediately commenced selling their 
lands, mostly at a great sacrifice, and made preparations 
for emigrating up the Missouri. All were now anxious 
to sell, instead .of buying more land in Ohio. A special 
command was given to seventeen families, who had 
settled in one township, some three months previous, to 
depart forthwith to the promised land, who obeyed 
orders, leaving their crop to those who owned the land. 
Besides a great variety of special revelations relating to 
individuals, and other matters, a general one was given to 
the proselytes to sell their lands and other property and 
repair to Missouri as fast as possible, but not in haste. 
Accordingly, many went during the year, making sacri 
fices of property, (those few of them who had any,) in 
proportion to their faith and their anxiety to be upon their 
* eternal inheritance.' In the mean time, thirty or forty 
'(Elders,* were sent off in various directions in pursuit 
of proselytes. This year passed off with a gradual in- 




crease, and considerable wealth was drawn in, so that they 
began to boast of a capital stock of ten or fifteen thousand 

" Their common stock principles appear to be some 
what similar to those of the Shakers. Each one, how 
ever is allowed to ' manage his own affairs in his own 
way,' until he arrives in Missouri. There the Bishop 
resides ; he has supreme command in all pecuniary mat 
ters, according to the revelations given by the prophet. 

* The next year commenced with something like a 
change of operations. Instead of selling their possessions 
in Ohio, they again began to buy up improved land, mills 
and water privileges. It would seem that the Missouri 
country began to look rather dreary to the prophet and his 
head men, supposing that they could not enjoy their 
power there as well as in Ohio. They could not think of 
undergoing the hardships and privations incident to a new 
country. Besides, the people there were not much dis 
posed to encourage the emigration of such an army of 
fanatics and their " Lamanite" brethren, under Gen. 
Black Hawk, were about that time commencing a war 
upon the whites. 

" They therefore, continued to extend their impositions 
by sending abroad every thing that could walk, no matter 
how ignorant, if they had learnt the tales and vagaries of 
their leaders. All that were so sent, were dubbed Elders 
or High Priests, and furnished with a commission, pur 
porting to have been dictated by the Lord to the prophet. 
These requisites being added to their credulity, they were 
of course inspired with all necessary self-sufficiency, zeal 
and impudence. They were thus prepared to declare that 



every thing which they stated or imagined, was absolutely 
true for the Spirit had so informed them. 

" During the year 1832, considerable progress was 
made in writing out, and revising the Old and New Tes 
taments, which the prophet pretended to do by inspira 
tion, or by the guidance of the Spirit. In this business, 
most of his leisure hours were occupied, Rigdon acting as 
scribe. They say that the Scriptures in their present form, 
retain but little of their original purity and beauty, having 
been so often copied and translated by unskilful hands. 
The whole of the old Bible is now said to be ready for 
the press, in its amended form, and will be forthcoming, 
as soon as the state of their finances will permit. 

"On the opening of the year 1833, the * gift of 
tongues' again made its appearance at head-quarters, and 
from thence extended to all their branches in different 
parts. Whether the language now introduced differed 
materially from those practised two or three years pre 
vious, (and pronounced to be of the Devil,) we have not 
been informed. It appears that this last device, was all 
that was then lacking to make the system perfect. They 
had long before professed to be fully endowed with the 
power of healing all manner of diseases, discerning 
spirits, and casting out devils. But a succession of fail 
ures had rendered them rather stale, and given distrust to 
many of the faithful. A new expedient was therefore 
indispensably necessary, in order to revive the drooping 
spirits of the deluded, and at the same time, insure a new 
crop of converts. The scheme proved eminently suc 
cessful. Hundreds were soon convinced of the truth of 
the whole, by hearing of and seeing the manner in which 
the * tongues' were performed, although the trick would 



seem more susceptible of discovery than any previous one. 
This gift was not confined to the elders and high priests, 
who, in other respects, were supposed to have a super 
abundant share of ' the spirit ;' but nearly all the prose 
lytes, both old and young, could show their faith by speak 
ing with l tongues.' ' 

One would think from the following account that the 
Mormons had been taking some hints from the school of 
Edward Irving. 

Mr. Kilby, who was an elder among the Mormons, 
but afterwards came to his senses and renounced the de 
lusion, relates some very curious facts in relation to their 
pretended gift of tongues. Two distinguished Mormon 
preachers, Mr. Cahoon and Patton, gave a rule for speak 
ing in unknown tongues, and also for interpreting what 
was spoken by others. 

" This rule, they said, was perfect that as long as we 
followed it we could not err. And so I believe ; it was a 
perfect rule to lead men astray. The rule, as given by 
Cahoon, is this : rise upon your feet and look and lean 
on Christ ; speak or make some sound ; continue to make 
sounds of some kind, and the Lord will make a correct 
tongue or language of it. The interpretation was to be 
given in the same way." Subsequent to this there was a 
still greater emigration to Missouri. Soon disturbances of 
various kinds arose. 

We had prepared two chapters containing such facts as 
we were able to collect, to exhibit the history of the 
Mormons in their residence in Missouri, and the two 
wars in which they were engaged. But upon looking 
over the pages which we had prepared we cannot make 
up our mind to tax the reader with the details of these 



belligerent operations. The result of their last resort to 
arms was their expulsion or emigration from Missouri 
into Illinois, and the founding of their new city at 
Nauvoo where at present is the principal Mormon settle 
ment. There are some few remaining facts to which 
we shall call the attention of the reader, in order to illus 
trate still further the folly, and depraved character of some 
of the prominent actors in this grand imposture. 




The prophet's attempt at financiering Mr. Smalling's letter. 

ALLUSION has been made to the attempts at financiering in 
which the Mormon prophet and his coadjutors embarked, 
before leaving Kirtland. The facts connected with this 
are presented in a clear light by Mr. Smalling, of Kirtland, 
in a letter addressed to Mr. Lee, of Frankford, Pa. An effort 
having been made at that village to establish a Mormon so 
ciety, the Mormon preacher at the close of his lecture in* 
vited any one, who chose, to ask questions, or offer remarks. 
Mr. Lee being present arose, gave his views of the new 
sect, which were not very complimentary, and among other 
facts presented before the audience a ten dollar bank note 
issued by Smith and Rigdon, which he declared was a 
gross fraud, as they had never obtained a charter for a 
bank, and did not pretend to redeem their notes. Mr. 
Lee was quite brow-beaten by the Mormon preacher. To 
satisfy himself and the public, Mr. Lee wrote to Kirtland, 
and obtained a letter in reply from Mr. Smalling, from 
which we make the following extracts : 

Kirtland, Ohio, March IQth, A. D. 1841. 

By request, and the duty I owe to my fellow-man, I 
consent to answer your letter, and your request as to Jo- 



seph Smith, Jr., and the Safety Society Bank of the Lat 
ter Day Saints, as they call themselves at the present, or 
Mormons. The followers of Smith believe him to be a 
prophet, and he had a revelation that the church must 
move to the Ohio, which they did, selling their posses 
sions and helping each other as a band of brothers, and 
they settled in this place. The Smith family were then 
all poor and the most of the church. I visited them in 
1833, they were then building a temple to the Most High 
God, who, Smith said, would appear and make his will 
known to his servants, and endow them with power in 
their last days that they might go and preach his gospel to 
all nations, kindred tongues, and people. For this purpose 
they wrought almost night and day, and scoured the 
branches in the east for money to enable them to build. 
The people consecrated freely, as they supposed for that 
purpose, for they supposed they were to be one in the 
church of Christ, for so Smith had told them by his reve 
lations, and that they must consecrate all for the poor in 
Zion. Thus many did until they finished the temple, and 
in the meantime the building committee built each of them 
a house, Sidney Rigdon and Joseph Smith, Jr. By this 
time the leaders of the church, Smith, Rigdon, Carter and 
Cahoon, I may say, all the heads of the church, got lifted 
up in pride, and they imagined that God was about to 
make them rich, and that they were to suck the milk of the 
Gentiles, as they call those that do not belong to the church, 
or do not go hand in hand with them. From this you can 
see they have a great desire for riches, and to obtain them 
without earning them. About this time they said that God 
had told them, Sidney and Joseph, that they had suffered 
enough and that they should be rich ; and th'ey informed 



me, that God told them to buy goods and so they did, to 
some thirty thousand dollars, on a credit of six months, at 
Cleveland and Buffalo. In the spring of 1836 this firm 
was, I believe, Smith, Rigdon & Co. It included the 
heads of the church. In the fall, they formed other com 
panies of their brethren, and sent to New York as agents 
for them, Hiram Smith and O. Cowdery, and they pur 
chased some sixty or seventy thousand dollars worth, all 
for the church, and the most of them not worth a penny, 
and no financiers. At this time the first debt became due 
and not any thing to pay it with, for they had sold to their 
poor brethren, who were strutting about the streets in the 
finest broadcloth, and imagining themselves rich, but could 
pay nothing : and poverty is the mother of invention. 
They then fixed upon a plan to pay the debt. It was, to 
have a bank of their own, as none of the then existing 
banks would loan to them what they wanted and the most 
refused them entirely. They sent to Philadelphia and got 
the plates made for their Safety Society Bank, and got a 
large quantity of bills ready for filling and signing ; -and 
in the meantime, Smith and others, collected what specie 
they could, which amounted to some six thousand dollars. 
The paper came about the first of January, 1837, and they 
immediately began to issue their paper and to no small 
amount : but their creditors refused to take it. Then 
Smith invented another plan, that was to exchange their 
notes for other notes that would pay their debts, and for 
that purpose he sent the elders out with it to exchange, 
and not only the elders, but gave large quantities of it to 
others, giving them one half to exchange it, as I am in 
formed by those that peddled for him. Thus Smith was 
instrumental in sending the worthless stuff abroad, and it 



soon came in again. There was nothing to redeem it with, 
as Smith had used the greater part of their precious metals. 
The inhabitants holding their bills came to inquire into 
the Safety Society precious metals : the way that Smith 
contrived to deceive them was this : he had some one or 
two hundred boxes made, and gathered all the lead and 
shot that the village had or that part of it that he controlled, 
and filled the boxes with lead, shot, &c., and marked them, 
one thousand dollars, each. Then, when they went to 
examine the vault, he had one box on a table partly filled 
for them to see, and when they proceeded to the vault, 
Smith told them that the church had two hundred thousand 
dollars in specie, and he opened one box and they saw 
that it was silver, and they hefted a number and Smith 
told them that they contained specie. They were seem 
ingly satisfied and went away for a few days, until the 
elders were sent off in every direction to pass their paper off: 
among the elders were Brigam Young, that went last, with 
forty thousand dollars ; John F. Boynton, with some 
twenty thousand dollars ; Luke Johnson, south and east, 
with an unknown quantity. I suppose if the money you 
have was taken of those, it was to Smith's and their pro 
fit ; and thus they continued to pass and sell the worthless 
stuff until they sold it at twelve and a half cents on the 
dollar, and so eager to put it off at that, that they could 
not attend meeting on the Sabbath, but they signed 
enough at that price to buy one section of land in the 
Illinois. There was some signed with S. Rigdon, cashier, 
and J. Smith, Jr. president, for the purpose, as it was then 
said, that if they should be called upon when they could 
not well redeem, that they would call them counterfeit, 
but they had no occasion to call any counterfeit, for they 



never redeemed but a very few thousand dollars, and there 
must be now a great many thousands of their bills out. 
There was some which others signed pro. tern, that were 
genuine too, the name of F. G. Williams, N. K. Whitney, 
and one Kingsbury, all those are genuine. 

The church have not now nor never had any common 
stock,* all that has been consecrated, Smith and the heads 
of the church have got, and what they get now they keep, 
for to show this I send you a revelation which is as fol 
lows : Revelation given July 9th, 1837, in far west, 
Caldwell county, Missouri, O Lord, show unto us, thy 
servants, how much thou requirest of the properties of thy 
people for a tything? Answer: Verily, thus saith the 
Lord, I require all their surplus properties to be put into 
the hands of the bishop of my church of Zion, for the 
building of mine house, and for the laying the foundation 
of Zion, and for the priesthood, and for the debts of the 
presidency of my church, and this shall be the beginning 
of the tything of my people, and after that, those who have 
been tythed, shall pay one-tenth of all their interest an 
nually, and this shall be a standing law unto them forever, 
for my holy priesthood saith the Lord : Verily, I say unto 
you, it shall come to pass, that all those who gather unto 
the land of Zion, shall be tythed of their surplus proper 
ties, and shall observe this law, or they shall not be found 
worthy to abide among you ; and behold, I say unto you, 
if my people observe not this law to keep it holy, and by 
this law sanctify the land of Zion unto me that my statutes 

* Instead of the stock being common, it appears the intention of 
the ringleaders is to monopolize it, and leave their poor dupes at last 
to shift for themselves. 



and my judgments may be kept thereon, that it may be 
most holy ; behold : Verily I say unto you, it shall not be 
a land of Zion unto you, and this shall be one example 
unto all the states of Zion, even so. Amen. They left 
here in a great hurry, as there was many debts against 
them, for the principal part that Smith had was borrowed, 
as also the heads of the church in general, and they had 
to keep the poor brethren lugging their boxes of silks and 
fine clothes from place to place, so that they should not be 
taken to pay their just debts, and mostly borrowed money, 
until they succeeded in getting them off in the night. 
They were pursued, but to no effect, they had a train too 
numerous, so the people could not get their pay, and thus 
they have brought destruction and misery on a great many 
respectable families, that are reduced to distress, while they 
live in splendour and all kinds of extravagance. These 
statements are well known here, and I presume will not 
be contradicted there, unless by some fanatic that has no 
knowledge of things as they do exist, or those deeply in 
terested in the frauds of the saints themselves. 

I am yours, <fcc., 
CYRUS SMALLING, of Kirtland, Ohio. 





An interesting public document The Danite band Testimony of 
Dr. Avard Paper drafted by Rigdon. 

WE insert the following communications, published in 
a most highly respectable religious journal. 

From the New York Baptist Advocate. 


A rare public document of a most interesting character 
having fallen into my hands, I propose to furnish you 
several communications in reference to it, and likewise in 
relation to the people to whom it relates. 

The Mormons have been generally regarded as a harm 
less sect of deluded fanatics, unworthy of any particular 
notice ; and the common impression seems to be, that they 
have been wronged and persecuted by the state of Mis 
souri. For my own part, having had occasion to become 
better acquainted with their principles and history than 
many others, I have for a long time been endeavouring, as 
opportunity offered, to open the eyes of the community 
to their character, and to show that mischief lurks beneath 




this cover of apparent insignificance, and that there are 
two sides to the story of the Mormon war in Missouri. 

Near the close of the recent session of Congress, a 
pamphlet was printed by order of the United States' 
Senate, for the use of the members of Congress, entitled a 
" Document showing the testimony given before the judge 
of the fifth judicial circuit of the state of Missouri, at the 
court-house in Richmond, in a criminal court of inquiry, 
begun November 12th, 1838." A list of fifty-three indi 
viduals is given, as being charged with the crimes of high 
treason against the state, muder, burglary, arson, robbery, 
and larceny. Among the number are Joseph Smith, jr., 
Hiram Smith, Sidney Rigdon, and Parley P. Pratt. A 
copy of this document I succeeded in obtaining, after con 
siderable difficulty, it not having been printed for general 

The first witness produced on behalf of the state was 
Dr. Sampson Avard, who had been a special teacher 
among the Mormons. He testifies that a band at first de 
nominated the Daughters of Zion, but afterwards the Danite 
band, was formed by the members of the Mormon church, 
the original object of which was, to drive from the county 
of Caldwell all who dissented from the Mormon church. 
Joseph Smith, jr., blessed them, and prophesied over 
them, declaring that they should be the means, in the hands 
of God, of bringing forth the millenial kingdom. The 
covenant taken by this band was as follows, (holding up 
the right hand :) " In the name of Jesus Christ, the Son 
of God, I do solemnly obligate myself ever to conceal, 
and never to reveal the secret purposes of this Society, 
called the Daughters of Zion. Should I ever do the same, 
I hold my life as the forfeiture." This band felt them- 



selves as much bound to obey Joseph Smith, jr., and his 
two counsellors, Hiram Smith and Sidney Rigdon, as to 
obey the supreme God. Joseph Smith, jr., in a public 
address, told them that they should stand by each other, 
right or wrong. He declared on another occasion, that all 
who did not take up arms in defence of the Mormons of 
Daviess, should be considered as tories, and should take 
their exit from the county. In reference to taking the 
property of others, in their expeditions to Daviess county, 
he told them that the children of God did not go to war at 
their own expense. He said it was high time they should 
be up, as the saints of the most high God, and protect 
themselves, and take the kingdom. On some occasions, 
he said, that one should chase a thousand, and two put ten 
thousand to flight ; that he considered the United States 
rotten ; that the Mormon church was the little stone spoken 
of by the prophet Daniel ; and that the dissenters first, 
and the state next, was part of the image that should be 
destroyed by the little stone. In an address to the forces 
at Far West, about the time that Gen. Lucas appeared in 
that quarter with the militia, Smith told them, that for 
every one they lacked in number of those that came out 
against them, the Lord would send angels, who would 
fight for them, and that they should be victorious. 

This witness (Dr. Avard) received orders from Smith 
and his counsellors to destroy the paper containing the con 
stitution of the Danite Society, inasmuch as if it should 
be discovered, it would be considered treasonable. This 
order he did not obey, but kept the paper in his posses 
sion ; and after he was made prisoner by General Clark, 
he delivered it up to him. The Mormon preachers and 
apostles were directed to instruct their followers to come 



up to the state called Far West, and to possess the 
kingdom, and that the Lord would give it to them. 

A paper was draughted by Sidney Rigdon against the 
dissenters from Mormonism, and signed by eighty-four 
Mormons. It was addressed to Oliver Cowdery, David 
Whitmer, William W. Phelps and Lyman E.Johnson. Of 
these, Oliver Cowdery and David Whitmer were two of 
the three witnesses that testified to the truth of the Book 
of Mormon. This will therefore serve to show how 
much credit is to be attached to their testimony. 
These eighty-four Mormons, in the letter, say to the 
dissenters, (Cowdery, Whitmer, &c.) that they had vio 
lated their promise, and disregarded their covenant ; that 
Oliver Cowdery had been taken by a state warrant for 
stealing, and the stolen property was found in the house 
of William W. Phelps, Oliver Cowdery having stolen 
and conveyed it ; that these dissenters had endeavoured to 
destroy the characters of Smith and Rigdon by every arti 
fice they could invent, not even excepting the basest 
lying ; that they had disturbed the Mormon meetings of 
worship ; that Cowdery and Whitmer had united with a 
gang of counterfeiters, thieves, liars and blacklegs of the 
deepest dye, to deceive cheat and defraud the Mormons 
out of their property, by every art and stratagem which 
wickedness could invent, stealing not excepted ; that they 
had attempted to raise mobs against the Mormons ; that 
Cowdery attempted to pass notes on which he had re 
ceived pay; that Cowdery, Whitmer and others, were 
guilty of perjury, cheating, selling bogus money, (base 
coin,) and even stones and sand for bogus ! that they had 



opened, read and destroyed letters in the post-office : and 
that they were engaged with a gang of counterfeiters, 
coiners, and blacklegs. 

There, Mr. Editor, is the character of two of the three 
witnesses who testified that they had seen the plates of 
the Book of Mormon ; that God's voice declared to them 
that they had been translated by his gift and power ; that 
an angel of God laid the plates and engravings before their 
eyes ; and that the voice of the Lord commanded them 
that they should bear record of it. This is the character 
of two of the three witnesses, according to the testimony 
of eighty-four Mormons, and not opposers of Mormon- 
ism. To how much credit these two witnesses are 
entitled, you can judge for yourself. In the course of 
my communications on this subject, I shall exhibit the 
character of the other witness, (Martin Harris,) and like 
wise of Prophet Smith himself. 

From the Baptist Advocate. 



In my first communication on the subject of the Mor 
mon war in Missouri, I showed, by Mormon evidence it 
self, that two of the three witnesses that testified to the 
truth of the Book of Mormon, viz : Oliver Cowdery and 
David Whitmer, are utterly unworthy of any credit 
whatever. In pursuance of my proposal in the same 
letter, I now proceed to exhibit the character of the re 
maining witness, Martin Harris ; and likewise the charac 
ter of Smith himself, over and above what has already been 
shown in relation to him. 





Palmyra, Nov. 29, 1833. 

Martin Harris is naturally quick in his temper. At 
different times while I lived with him, he has whipped, 
kicked, and turned me out of the house. In one of his 
fits of rage, he struck me with the butt end of a whip, 
which I think had been used for driving oxen, and was 
about the size of my thumb. He beat me on the head 
four or five times, and the next day turned me out of 
doors twice, and beat me in a shameful manner. His 
main complaint against me was, that I was always trying 
to hinder his making money. One day, while at Peter 
Harris's house, I told him he had better leave the com 
pany of the Smith's, as their religion was false ; to which 
he replied : " If you would let me alone, I could make 
money by it." 

There is the character of the third witness of the trio, 
on whose testimony the Book of Mormon depends for 
support. Let us now look a little further at the character 
of Prophet Smith himself. 

Fifty-one of Smith's old acquaintances in Palmyra, de 
clare him destitute of that moral character which ought to 
entitle him to the confidence of any community, spending 
much of his time in money digging, and being addicted to 
vicious habits. 

Peter Ingersol, of Palmyra, testifies, that Smith acknow 
ledged that he could not see in a stone, as he had pretended. 

William Chace, of Manchester, Ontario county, N. Y., 
testifies, that Smith acknowledged he had no Book of 
Mormon, and never had any. 

Parley Chace, of Manchester, states, that Smith was 
entitled to no credit whatever ; that he was lazy, intern- 



perate, worthless, and very much addicted to lying, boast 
ing of his skill in it, digging for money, and scarcely ever 
telling two stories alike in relation to the Golden Bible 

David Stafford, of Wayne county, testifies, that Smith 
used to get intoxicated, on which occasions he would quar 
rel and fight. 

Barton Stafford, of Manchester, testifies, that Smith was 
very much addicted to intemperance, even after he pro 
fessed to be a prophet ; and when intoxicated, he fre 
quently made his religion his theme. 

Henry Harris, of Cuyahoga county, Ohio, testifies, that 
such was Smith's character for lying, that the jury did not 
believe him when under oath. 

Rev. Nathaniel C. Lewis, of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, and a relative of Smith's wife, testifies, that 
Smith's general character was that of an impostor, hypo 
crite, and liar. 

Alva Hale, brother-in-law of Smith, testifies, that Smith 
told him, that his gift in seeing with a stone and a hat, 
was a gift from God ; but at another time he told him, that 
this " peeping 11 was all nonsense. He further testifies, 
that he knows Smith to be an impostor and liar. 

Levi Lewis testifies, that he has heard Smith and Harris 
both say, that adultery was no crime. Lewis further 
testifies, that he knows Smith to be a liar ; that he saw 
him intoxicated at three different times, while composing 
the Book of Mormon ; that he has heard him use the most 
profane language ; that he has heard him say he was as 
good as Jesus Christ ; that it was as bad to injure him as it 
was to injure Jesus Christ; and that God had deceived 



him with regard to the plates, which was the reason he 
did not show them. 

Let this suffice on this point. And now we have before 
us the character of this false prophet, and of his three sup 
porters, on whose credibility the fate of the Book of Mor 
mon depends. Not one word of commentary is necessary, 
after such an exhibition of their worthlessness and vile- 
ness ; and I shall, therefore, leave it as it is to speak for 





The following letter is the last in the series, originally 
written for the columns of the Episcopal^Recorder. 

Although I have occupied your attention so long with 
the history of the origin and rise of Mormonism, I have a 
few words more to add before closing the subject. Several 
facts which have come to my knowledge, since commenc 
ing these sketches, lead me to apprehend, that the develop 
ments we have been attempting to make are not ill-timed. 
Is there any one who would have formed so low an estimate 
of the Christian intelligence of this land, as to have concluded 
a priori that a deception so barefaced, and, withal, so ridi 
culous, as the pretended disinterment of the Mormon Bible 
frm one of the hills of Western New York, and this set on 
foot by an illiterate vagrant hanging on the skirts of society, 
and of exceedingly doubtful moral character, and backed 
by the pecuniary means of a man of the most credulous 
and superstitious cast of character, whose sanity of mind 
was greatly questioned by all his acquaintance, should 
have gained in a period of ten years such dominion over 
human belief, as to be received as the undoubted truth of 
God by more than sixty thousand persons. We are sur 
prised to hear of the success of this imposture in the Great 
Valley of the West, although there is material there for 



almost every erratic conception of the human mind to act 
upon. But what shall we say of the success of Mormonism 
in the Atlantic states, gathering its converts from ortho 
dox and evangelical churches ? Will it not fill intelligent 
Christians with surprise, to learn that the Mormons are 
establishing themselves not only in many parts of New 
England, but that they are spreading through Pennsyl 
vania, and that they already have two churches formed in 
Philadelphia, and that a portion of the members of these 
churches, have been regular communicants in the Methodist 
and Presbyterian Chnrches ? Such, however, is the fact. 
And we shall not be greatly surprised, if this mystery of 
iniquity" continues to work, and that those who have dared 
to "add to the words 11 of God's finished revelation, shall 
receive the threatened curse. We shall not be surprised 
if " God shall send upon such, strong delusion, that they 
should believe a lie," and that they " wax worse and 
worse, deceiving and being deceived." 

One thing however is distinctly to be noted in the history 
of this imposture. There are no Mormons in Manchester, 
or Palmyra, the place where this Book of Mormon was 
pretended to be found. You might as well go down into 
the Crater of Vesuvius and attempt to build an ice house 
amid its molten and boiling lava, as to convince any 
inhabitant in either of these towns, that Jo Smith's preten 
sions are not the most gross and egregious falsehood. It 
was indeed a wise stroke of policy, for those who got up 
this imposture, and who calculated to make their fortune by 
it, to emigrate to a place where they were wholly unknown. 
As soon as they had arranged their apparatus for deceiving 
weak, and unstable souls as soon as the Book of Mormon 



was printed and their plans formed, the actors in this scene 
went off en masse to a part of the country where their 
former character and standing were unknown, and where 
their claim to divine inspiration could be set up with a little 
more show of plausibility than it could have been any 
where in the state of New York. Mormonism had to 
grow a number of years in a western soil, and there acquire 
a sort of rank and luxuriant growth, before it could be 
transplanted with any success to a point near its birth-place. 
And even now it keeps very much in the background its 
grand pecularities. The Mormon preachers, I am told, 
in this region, generally dwell upon the common topics of 
Christianity, rather than upon the peculiarities of their 
system. The object of this is manifest. They wish to 
strengthen themselves by a large accession of converts, 
before they stand on the peculiarities of their system. 
But all Christians should beware of their devices. Their 
whole system is built upon imposture. They believe 
Joseph Smith to be a prophet of God, when there is not 
a man in our Penitentiary, that might not with just as 
much plausibility lay claim to that character. They be 
lieve the BOOK OF MORMON to be a divine revelation, when 
it can be proved, that the whole ground-work of it was 
written by Mr. Spalding as a Religious and Historical 
Romance. They believe that they have the power among 
them to work miracles, when even " Satan with all" his 
" power and signs and lying wonders, and with all his 
deceivableness, has not been able to sustain their claim to 
in a single instance. 

Martin Harris, after he went to Kirtland, Ohio, where, as 
we have seen, the first Mormon settlement was formed, used 



occasionally to return to Palmyra. As one of the three wit 
nesses, he claimed divine inspiration, and is, I believe, to the 
present day regarded by the Mormons, as one of the greatest 
and best among " the latter-day saints." In these visits to 
the place of his former residence he not only endeavoured 
to proselyte his old acquaintances to his new faith, but 
used sometimes to edify them with very solemn prophe 
cies of future events. I was informed by Judge S of 

Palmyra, that he came to his office so much and uttered 
his prophecies so frequently that he at length told him, 
that he would not consent to his uttering his predictions 
any more orally, but that he must write them down and 
subscribe his name to them, or else seek some other place 
for the exercise of his prophetic gift. Harris instantly 
wrote down two predictions, attaching his signature to 

The one was a declaration that Palmyra would be 
destroyed, and left utterly without inhabitants, before the 
year 1836. The other prediction was that before 1838 
the Mormon faith would so extensively prevail, that it 
would modify our national government, and there would 
at that period be no longer any occupant of the presidential 
chair of the United States. To these predictions he sub 
joined the declaration that if they were not literally fulfil- 
ed, any one might have full permission to cut off his head 
and roll it around the streets as a foot-ball. Bear in mind 
that this was one of the pretended chosen witnesses of 
God, to testify to the truth of the Book of Mormon. I 
need not say that both these prophecies in their entire 
failure of fulfilment, convicted him of falsehood, and show 
how little is the value of his testimony. 

Another fact worthy of note in this connection is, that 



as Harris, Smith, Rigdon, &c., all expected to make their 
fortune out of this scheme. The banking enterprise in 
which they engaged, as we have seen, liked to have proved 
a ruinous operation to them all. Ultimately this speculation 
contributed to sever Harris from Smith and Rigdon, who 
went farther west, and commenced operations in Missouri. 
Harris, in one of his late visits to Palmyra, remarked to a 
friend of mine, that Jo Smith had now become a complete 
wretch, and that he had no confidence either in him or 
Rigdon. Recollect that this is the testimony of one of the 
three chosen witnesses by which the truth of the Book 
of Mormon is to be established. 

One fact more. You recollect that it was mentioned in 
a former No. of these sketches, that Martin Harris' wife 
%could not be induced to come over to the Mormon faith. 
He consequently abandoned her, visiting her only once or 
twice a year. She at length declined in health, and was 
evidently sinking down to the grave. A gentleman of 
undoubted veracity in Palmyra told me that a few days 
before her death, Harris returned, and on one occasion 
while sitting in the room with her, appeared to be very 
much occupied in writing. She inquired what he was 
writing? He replied that he was writing a letter to a 
female to whom he was going to be married when she was 
dead ! And according to his words he was married to her 
in a very few weeks after his wife's death. What are we 
to think of Mormonism, when we remember that a man of 
such feelings and such morality was one of the chosen 
witnesses to attest its truth. 

I have already said, that the Mormons in this region 
cautiously keep out of sight the peculiarities of their 
system, and principally dwell upon the common topics of 



Christian faith and practice. One proof of this is, the 
very few copies of the Book of Mormon, that are found 
among them. I am told that among all the members of 
the two Churches established in Philadelphia, there are 
not more than twenty copies of the Book of Mormon. This 
book I suppose is only for the initiated for those whose 
faith is well established. 

Another fact in proof of the foregoing position is the 
effort they use to drop the name of Mormons, and to as 
sume the more taking one of "Latter day Saints" and 
when called upon to state their creed, instead of declaring 
boldly that Joseph Smith is the prophet of God, and that 
the Book of Mormon is his word, they rather dwell upon 
those points of faith which all Christians hold in common. 

In illustration of this last remark, I will here insert a. 
written statement given by Joseph Young, of Kirtland, 
Ohio, an elder of the Mormon Church, while on a visit to 
Boston to establish his faith in that city. 

" The principal articles of the Latter-day Saints, vulgarly 
called Mormons, are 

1. A belief in one true and living God, the creator of 
the heavens and the earth, and in his Son Jesus Christ, 
who came into this world 1800 years since, at Jerusalem ; 
was slain, rose from the dead, ascended on high, and now 
sits on the right hand of the Majesty in the heavens ; that 
through the atonement thus wrought out, all men may 
come to God and find acceptance ; all of which they believe 
is revealed in the holy Scriptures. 

2. That God requires all men, wherever his gospel is 
proclaimed, or his law known, to repent of all sins, forsake 
evil, and follow righteousness ; that his word also requires 



men to be baptized, as well as to repent ; and that the 
direct way pointed out by the Scriptures for baptism, is 
immersion. After which, the individual has the promise 
of the gift of the Holy Spirit ; that this divine communi 
cation is absolutely promised unto all men, upon whom 
" the Lord our God shall call," if they are obedient unto 
his commandments. This gift of the Holy Spirit, was 
anciently bestowed by the laying on the apostle's hands : 
so this church believes that those who have authority to 
administer in the ordinances of the gospel, have this right 
and authority, through prayer; and without this authority, 
and this gift, the church is not now what it anciently was ; 
consequently, cannot be recognised as the true Church of 

3. That God will, in the last days, gather the literal 
descendants of Jacob to the lands, anciently possessed by 
their fathers ; that he will lead them as at the first, and build 
them as at the beginning. That he will cause his arm to 
be made bare in their behalf ; his glory to attend them by 
night and by day. That this is necessary to the fulfilment 
of his word, when his knowledge is to cover the earth as 
the waters cover the seas. And that, as men anciently 
saw visions, dreamed dreams, held communion with angels, 
and converse with the heavens, so it will be in the last 
days to prepare the way for all nations, languages and 
tongues, to serve him in truth. 

4. That the time will come when the Lord Jesus will 
descend from heaven, accompanied with ten thousand of 
his saints ; that a mighty angel will lay hold on the dragon, 
bind him, cast him into the pit, where he will be kept 
from deceiving the nations for a thousand years ; during 



which time, one continued round of peace will pervade 
every heart. And, 

5. They believe in the resurrection of the body : that 
all men will stand in the presence of God and be judged 
according to the deeds, or works, done in this life ; that the 
righteous will enter into eternal rest, in the presence of 
God, but the wicked be cast off, to receive a just recom 
pense of reward ; and tha^t, to ensure eternal life, a strict 
obedience to all the commandments of God, must be 
observed, to the end." 

You see there is not even a remote allusion to what con 
stitutes the gist of their whole system. But I will here 
leave the subject for the present. 





DUE ...,-uv a i 
MAR 1 4 REC'D 


Book Slip-25m-6,'66(6385os4)458 


1 Clark, J.A. 

Gleanings by the way.